Full text of "Report"
This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project
to make the world's books discoverable online.
It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover.
Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the
publisher to a library and finally to you.
Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.
We also ask that you:
+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for
personal, non-commercial purposes.
+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.
+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it.
+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.
About Google Book Search
Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web
at jhttp : //books . qooqle . com/
SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT
THE SECRETARY OF THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30,; 1908
. " ' -MANILA '•
BUREAU t>F Pgt^i&G :, ;
SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT
THE SECRETARY OF THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1908
BUREAU OF PRINTING
Inspection of provinces organized under the special provincial government
act ■' 7
Tagudin trail 8
Conditions in Lepanto 8
Cause of malaria at Cervantes ascertained 9
Conditions in Bontoc 9
Bontoc exchange 10
Polis Mountain-Quiangan trail 11
Gathering of Ifugaos at Banaue 12
Certain Ifugaos attempt to resist governmental authority 12
Disbursement of the special fund for the promotion of friendly relations
with non-Christian tribes and the suppression of head-hunting 13
Inspection trip to the subprovince of Apayao 14
Baguio-Suyoc trail '. 17
Establishment of the Mountain Province 17
Transfer of Ilongot country to Nueva Vizcaya 19
Establishment of a prison at Bontoc 19
Contemplated improvements in the Mountain Province 20
Murder of Americans by non-Christians 20
Bureau of Health 21
Philippine General Hospital 21
Baguio Hospital 21
New private hospitals 22
Philippine Islands Medical Association 22
Sanitary statistics for Manila 23
Increase in population 23
Improvements at Sibul Springs • 23
Artesian wells 24
Administration of the Food and Drugs Act 24
Free dispensaries 24
Medical inspection of schools 25
Administration of public charities 25
Medical examination of immigrants 25
Installation of Manila sewer system 28
Sweeping public buildings 28
Infant mortality in Manila...- 29
Improvement in ambulance service 29
Hookworm disease 30
X-ray treatment of leprosy 32
Opium habit 33
Bureau of Health — Continued. Page.
Bubonic plague 34
Sleeping sickness 35
Typhoid fever 35
Baguio Hospital 35
Need of provincial hospitals 36
'Future policy in health work 36
Quarantine service 37
Immigration difficulties 37
Bureau of Forestry 38
Visit of a representative from the forest department of Java 38
Forestry investigations in the Agusan River Valley 39
Employment of Igorot fire wardens in northern Luzon 39
Inspection of public lands 39
Instruction of Filipino employees 39
Forest maps 39
Museum and herbarium collections 40
Durability tests of woods.— 40
Museum specimens 40
Timber-testing laboratory 40
Investigations in Mindoro 40
Bureau of Science 41
Relationship between the Bureau of Science and the Philippine Medical
The securing of trained men for the Bureau of Science 41
Cement-testing laboratory 42
Producer-gas plant 43
Philippine Museum 43
General scientific library 43
Philippine Journal of Science 44
Necessity for a new wing to the laboratory building 44
Biological laboratory 44
Publications and investigations 45
Serum section v 46
Entomological section 46
Botanical section 47
Collection of natural-history specimens 48
Chemical laboratory 49
Division of weights, measures, and mineral analyses 50
Laboratory for food and drugs inspection 50
Division of mines 50
Division of ethnology 52
Division of fish and fisheries 52
Work of the steamer Albatross 53
Bureau of Lands 54
New work 54
Transfer of the office to Baguio 55
Law clerk needed by the Bureau of Lands 56
Bureau of Lands — Continued. Page.
Friar lands 56
New leases 57
Amendments to Friar Land Act 58
Friar-land loans 59
Special inducements to occupation and cultivation of friar estates.. 60
Reservations requested on friar lands for Insular, municipal and
provincial purposes 60
False rumors relative to the repurchase of portions of friar estates
by friars 61
Political and other difficulties 61
Repairs to irrigation works 61
Public lands 62
Sales of 63
Leases of 63
Free patents to native settlers 63
Town sites 64
Unperfected titles 64
Mineral and mining claims 64
Reclaimed land 65
Insular Government property 65
Road surveys and monument locations 66
San Lazaro Estate 6^
Bureau of Agriculture 67
Control of animal diseases 67
Sale of serum animals 69
Proposed sale of serum 69
Establishment of a veterinary college recommended 69
Agricultural-extension work 70
Crop reporting and statistics 71
Mechanical plowing 71
Guinea grass 72
Miscellaneous products 73
Seed and plant distribution 73
Establishment of a forage plant provided for 74
Weather Bureau 74
Foreign cable facilities 75
Earthquakes . 75
Transfer of the crop reporting service to the Bureau of Agriculture 75
Extraordinary publications 75
Meteorological and geodynamic observatory at Baguio 76
Receipts and disbursements of Bureaus 77
SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY
OF THE INTERIOR.
Department of the Interior,
Manila, P. I., September 1, 1908.
Gentlemen : I have the honor to present the seventh annal report
of the operations of the Department of the Interior, which, unless other-
wise expressly stated, covers the year ending June 30, 1908.
INSPECTION OF PROVINCES ORGANIZED UNDER THE SPECIAL
PROVINCIAL, GOVERNMENT ACT.
The Provinces of Mindoro, Palawan, and Agusan were inspected
during the first quarter of the year just closed and a statement as to the
conditions found was included in the last annual report of the under-
The inspection of the Province of Benguet was made during the
presence at Baguio of the Philippine Commission in April, May and
As the Philippine Legislature did not adjourn until July 19, 1908,
and as there was a bare quorum of the Commission present in the
Philippine Islands, it was necessary to delay the inspection trip through
Amburayan, Lepanto, Bontoc and Nueva Vizcaya until that time.
Although this delay threw the trip into the midst of the rainy season,
it gave time for the completion of important engineering work which
the undersigned was anxious to see in a finished state.
Tagudin, the capital of Amburayan, was reached by sea. A light
has just been erected on the coast, marking the position of the town
at night, and there seems to be less surf at this point than at Candon,
Vigan or Laoag.
Under the administration of Lieutenant-Governor Evans, the satis-
factory conditions which existed among the non-Christian inhabitants
of Amburayan have been maintained, while the unhappy dissension
which so greatly interfered with the progress of the Christian inhabit-
ants of the subprovince has been ended and conditions are now more
favorable than at any time since American occupation. The munici-
pality is improving its public buildings and its highways and is showing
a most commendable and progressive spirit, in spite of the recent
disastrous failure of its rice crop, due to drouth. It has some 5 square
miles of rich rice land, which, it is believed, could be irrigated at
comparatively small expense with water taken from the Amburayan River.
This matter has been brought to the attention of the Irrigation Com-
mittee by the undersigned, and should an irrigation system be constructed
Tagudin would harvest two crops of rice per year and would become
one of the most prosperous towns on the west coast of northern Luzon.
THE TAGUDIN TRAIL.
The trail which connects Tagudin with Cervantes was finally com-
pleted a few hours before the undersigned passed over it, an entirely
new location having been made from the crest of Malaya Mountain to
the valley of the Abra River. The distance from Tagudin to Cervantes
by the new trail is 40 miles. The only two streams of any size which
are crossed have been spanned by permanent bridges, suitable for heavy
wheeled traffic, and interruption to communication by floods during the
rainy season is improbable.
A trip by the old trail to Candon involved the fording of a swift
river thirteen times, and for considerable periods during the rainy
season it was often impossible to get through. The grade of the
Tagudin trail is everywhere below 6 per cent, and it requires only
widening and surfacing to convert it into an excellent carriage road.
The total cost of the trail to date, including maintenance during a
rainy season of exceptional severity, has been f*5 5,800.
In view of the excessively difficult nature of the country which it
traverses, the undersigned considers that it affords a very conclusive
demonstration of the satisfactory results which may be achieved in
opening up good lines of communication throughout the most rugged
mountain regions of northern Luzon.
CONDITIONS IN LEPANTO.
Conditions in the subprovince of Lepanto have continued satisfactory,
and, as is usually the case, little has occurred there which calls for
special mention. Most of the inhabitants of this subprovince are
peaceful, industrious Igorots. Many of them are well to do and own
horses and cattle in considerable numbers. The animal industry of
the province, which was in a most flourishing state, was seriously
threatened by a serious outbreak of anthrax at Bauco. It appears that
years ago a similar outbreak occurred and that the animals which died
were buried at a considerable depth. Shortly prior to the new outbreak
it is stated that peculiar worms, of a kind which had not been seen by
the people in the vicinity for many years, appeared in considerable
numbers on the surface of the ground and the Igorots believe, perhaps
not without reason, that they brought the disease with them. By
strenuous efforts on the part of the provincial government and the
Bureau of Agriculture, aided by the effective cooperation of the Igorots
of the neighboring towns, who seemed fully to realize the gravity of the
menace to their herds, the disease was fortunately confined to the im-
mediate vicinity of the region where it originated and was ultimately
CAUSE OF MALARIA AT CERVANTES ASCERTAINED.
During a period of fixe years, the undersigned has noted the occur-
rence of a severe outbreak of malarial fever, affecting a large portion
of the population of Cervantes, at the beginning of each dry season.
As the town itself is always quite dry, and is excessively so at this
season, it was difficult to see where mosquitoes could breed. With a
view to ascertaining this and removing the cause of the trouble, if
possible, the Bureau of Science was this year requested to send an
entomologist to make a careful investigation. Anopheles was found
breeding abundantly in the Abra Kiver. This is a large stream during
the rainy season but shrinks rapidly as the dry season advances, leaving
very numerous shallow pools in which the larvae of Anopheles were
found in large numbers. Although the river is so far from Cervantes
that it had not previously been regarded as a possible source of trouble,
there is now good reason to believe that the mosquitoes hatched in its
waters are blown into the town in large numbers by the strong northeast
winds which prevail at the beginning of the dry season.
Unfortunately the condition is one that can not well be remedied.
Tt would be impossible, at any reasonable cost, to confine the river within
narrow limits at this point, and the use- of kerosene over such a large
area as that occupied by the pools which are left as the dry season
advances is hardly practicable.
This is one of several causes which have combined to lead the un-
dersigned to recommend the transfer of the capital of the Province to
CONDITIONS IN BONTOC.
Upon the arrival of the Secretary of the Interior at the town of
Bontoc, there were found representatives of all but two of the settle-
ments of the subprovince. Approximately a thousand headmen were
present, to say nothing of their several escorts. Included in this
number were ten of the chiefs of Lubuagan, who had brought 400
followers. It is said that only two men from this town had ever pre-
viously visited Bontoc.
The gathering included representatives of numerous settlements which
had long been bitterly hostile and was most useful in that it resulted in
their eating, drinking and dancing together and growing friendly. It
also afforded an opportunity for the inauguration of the first of what it
is hoped may be an annual series of athletic field-days which will have
an important influence upon public order. While there may seem to
he little connection between athletic sports and public order among head-
hunters, it must be remembered that head-hunting is regarded by many
of those who engage in it in the light of a sport, and serves as an outlet
for superfluous animal spirits which might profitably be directed into
There already exists among the Bontoc Igorots and the Ifugaos a
custom of occasionally settling disputes between rancherias by holding
wrestling matches instead of by fighting them out, and this fact has
been taken advantage of in inaugurating the field-days above referred to.
In the present instance there were held running races, lance-throwing
contests, tugs-of-war, wrestling matches and other athletic contests,
including several peculiar to these Igorots. There was no lack of con-
testants; competition was extremely keen and wild is a mild term to
apply to the enthusiasm of the friends of successful contestants, while
the losers usually took their discomfiture quite philosophically. The
superb physical development which is the rule among these wild men
resulted in many very creditable perfomances.
It is believed that such field-days may be made very important annual
events to the wild man and that he will be more willing to forego the
excitement of a head-hunt and the feast which follows in the event
of success if he is given an opportunity to show his prowess before a
crowd far larger than any that would ever witness his exploits in war,
and if he realizes, at the same time, that by going out on a head-hunt
he will lose all chance of participating in the great annual "canao."
Another advantage of these large gatherings is that it gives the
Secretary of the Interior a chance to meet and confer with all the
important chiefs in the region in which they are held. The feasting
which accompanies them produces a general feeling of good-will and
an exceptionally favorable opportunity is afforded for exerting over
the headmen who are assembled a strong influence, which through
them ultimately extends to very remote regions.
THE BONTOC EXCHANGE.
The proposed Government exchange at Bontoc referred to in the
last annual report of the Secretary of the Interior has been established
and has proved a very important factor in promoting friendly relations
with the people and in facilitating the construction of public works
and the maintenance of public order. A small building has been erected
in which are kept for sale all of the necessaries and many of the luxuries
of the Igorot. They are sold at Manila prices, plus the cost of trans-
portation, plus 20 per cent., and the resulting prices are lower than
any of which he has heretofore dreamed. If he desires to sell his lance,
his shield, his highly ornamented rattan cap, his smoking pipe, or any
other article which would gladden the heart of a curio dealer, he is paid
a good price for it in cash. He then has the satisfaction of carrying
real money about with him and he may also experience the joy of
spending it for some long-coveted and hitherto unattainable article.
Bice, dry grass for mats, hewn lumber and various other products are
also purchased at the exchange by the provincial government which can
readily use them or dispose of them. A strong inducement is offered to
labor on trails, bridges and other public works when the laborer knows
that without making the long and dangerous trip to the coast he can
immediately spend his wages to advantage and can secure what he needs
for himself and his family.
Within ten days of the opening of the exchange most of its stock of
goods was exhausted and as the rainy season was at its height some time
necessarily elapsed before more could be brought in. Nevertheless, sales
have amounted to 1*9,000 in nine months and are rapidly increasing.
Three sides of the small rectangular plaza on which the exchange is
situated are surrounded by a long building, divided into stalls in which
people from different rancher tas may display their wares for sale, and a
conveniently situated rest-house affords sleeping quarters for visitors
from distant settlements.
The Igorots of Bontoc are now themselves demanding that travel on
the trails be made and kept safe in order that they may be able to get
to the exchange and trade. They are thus becoming directly interested
in the maintenance of public order.
The influence of this exchange has made itself felt even among the
Ifugaos of Xueva Vizcaya and arrangements have been completed for
opening a similar concern in their territory. Others will be established
in the country of the Kalingas and in Apayao.
The Bontoc Igorots have behaved especially well during the past year
and there have been very few cases of headhunting among them.
THE POLIS MOUtfTAIX-QUIANGAX TRAIL.
The trip from Bontoc to Nueva Vizcaya has been made easy by the
completion of a fine trail from the top of Polis Mountain to Banaue
and Quiangan, a distance of 46 miles. The old trail from the crest
of the Polis range to Banaue was excessively bad. There were long
stretches over which it was impossible to ride even a native pony and
the trip was possible only to persons who were in good physical condition
and accustomed to severe exertion. As there seemed no reason why the
thousands of feet of adverse grade on this old trail should not be entirely
cut out and a new line surveyed with a grade not exceeding 6 per cent.,
, and as funds were available for the performance of this work, the
Secretary of the Interior ordered it begun in May, 1907, and had the
pleasure of inspecting the finished trail in June, 1908. The grade is
4 per cent, or less for the greater part of the distance, and a horse may
now be ridden at a trot either up or down the mountain. An excellent
rest-house at the summit affords travelers protection from the cold and
dampness, while a stable serves a similar purpose for their horses. The
view from the crest of the range is magnificent and the beauty of the
tropical vegetation on its eastern slopes is beyond description.
GATHERING OF IFUGAOS AT BANAUE.
At Banaue was assembled what was doubtless the most remarkable
gathering of wild men ever brought together in northern Luzon. The
Ifugaos of Nueva Vizcaya have been active and fierce head-hunters, and
feuds have existed for centuries between their various settlements. The
first attempt ever made to bring them together* in considerable numbers
was at Quiangan during the annual inspection trip of 1907. It resulted
so successfully that this year a strong effort was put forth to assemble
larger gatherings both at Quiangan and at Banaue. A year ago this
would have been impracticable at the latter place, but during the year
great progress has been made in establishing friendly feeling between
lifelong Ifugao enemies.
This progress is largely due to the courage and tact of Lieut. Jeff D.
Gallman, Philippines Constabulary, who has tramped ceaselessly over the
country, making friends with the well-disposed Ifugaos in their own
settlements and at the same time capturing and turning over to the courts
the evil doers.
In building the Polis Mountain trail and the Constabulary head-
quarters at Banaue care was taken to have laborers from hostile rancherias
work side by side and as a result they soon became friends.
CERTAIN IFUGAOS ATTEMPT TO RESIST GOVERNMENTAL AUTHORITY.
Shortly before the arrival of the undersigned the young men of Lingay
killed a Banaue policeman, took his head and his gun, and, encouraged
by their success, sent a challenge to Lieutenant Gallman to come with his
Constabulary soldiers and fight them. They had managed to get together
eleven guns, had dismantled their houses, hiding the thatch and boards
in the hills; had removed their domestic animals and had strongly
intrenched themselves. When the resulting unpleasantness was over
Lieutenant Gallman was in possession of all their eleven guns and had
taught them a lesson which will not be forgotten for many years. A
few days later their old men came to Banaue to give themselves up
and ask for a cessation of hostilities, which was promptly conceded to
them. Among the' friendly dancers at Banaue we saw a chief who fired
some sixty rounds at Lieutenant Gallman and his command during the
The attempt to bring about a general gathering of the Ifugao head-
men of northwestern Nueva Vizcaya at Banaue was completely suc-
cessful, representatives being present from Mayoyao on the Isabela
boundary to Asin on the Benguet line.
The delegations, which arrived separately, presented a very imposing
appearance as they came marching in, each led by its gansa players and
its chief. The fighting men came armed and the plaza at Banaue bristled
throughout the day with their lances, which were immediately stuck in
the ground on their arrival but were promptly seized by their owners as
a precautionary measure whenever there was any sign of disturbance in
the crowd, which numbered at least three thousand.
The Secretary of the Interior had an opportunity to meet, for the first
time, many of the more redoubtable chiefs of this region and the friend-
liest relations were established. Furthermore, as at Bontoc, enemies
danced together and made friends. With great difficulty three carabaos
and two cows had been secured and a grand feast was given these people,
many of whom almost never have an opportunity to taste meat. Presents
were distributed among the chiefs who had rendered themselves con-
spicuous by their loyalty or had been especially helpful in securing labor
for trail work and the construction of buildings. At dusk this crowd of
armed men, many of whom had been fighting each other a few months
before, dispersed peaceably, and no unpleasant incident marred the day.
At Quiangan a still larger gathering was assembled. As that of the
previous year at this place had been a success, it was comparatively easy
to arrange for a second one. Some five thousand outsiders were present,
not to mention the contingent from Quiangan itself, which was large.
Here, as at Banaue, the gathering broke up without any untoward
incident and it was unquestionably extremely useful in promoting friendly
relations both among the people and between them and the authorities.
This assemblage of wild men, undoubtedly the largest ever held in the
Philippines, was in a large measure made possible by the excellent pre-
liminary work of Lieutenant Mamban, a Filipino Constabulary officer,
stationed at Quiangan, who while fearlessly performing his duties has
made himself very popular with the Ifugaos of that region and during
the past year, as the direct result of his friendship with them, has suc-
ceeded in persuading them to open up some fifty miles of trail over which
horses can be taken.
Both Lieutenant Gallman and Lieutenant Mamban are entitled to great
credit for what they have accomplished.
DISBURSEMENT OF THE SPECIAL FUND FOR THE PROMOTION OF FRIENDLY
RELATIONS WITH NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES AND THE SUPPRESSION OF
The successful holding of the above-described gatherings at Bontoc,
Banaue and Quiangan was made possible through the appropriation by
the Commission of a special fund of 1*6,000, expendable in the discretion
of the Secretary of the Interior, for the suppression of head-hunting and
the promotion of friendly relations with non-Christian tribes.
When an American official visits an Igorot or Ifugao chief, the latter
almost invariably holds a "canao" or feast in honor of his arrival and
when an American official invites an Igorot or Ifugao chief to visit him,
it is obviously incumbent upon him to return the compliment, but if he
were obliged to supply food and drink for several thousand hungry guests
for a period of two or three days at his own expense, these gatherings
would necessarily be somewhat burdensome. During the past year this
special fund has been used to defray the expense of entertainment at the
gatherings of Igorots and Ifugaos at Quiangan, Banaue, Bontoc and
Cervantes, for purchasing presents to be given to chiefs and others who
have especially distinguished themselves by their hard work or loyalty
during the year, and for paying small salaries to faithful and efficient
headmen in settlements which had no funds of their own and which had
not advanced sufficiently in social development to render it wise to impose
on them .any taxes. When it is remembered that the largest salary paid
has been ^6 per month, the fact will be realized that the good will and
efficient service obtained have been out of all proportion to the insigni-
ficant expense involved.
INSPECTION TRIP TO THE SUBPROVINCE OF APAYAO.
The undersigned had expected, in reaching Apayao, to go through
Nueva Vizcaya to Echague in Isabela and descend the Rio Grande de
Cagayan to Aparri, but this proving impossible owing to torrential rains
which made the trails of Isabela impassable, returned to Manila and on
August 22 sailed for Aparri direct. After running up to the capital of
the subprovince of Batanes to deliver messages to the lieutenant-governor,
and leaving at a convenient point on the beach a party from the Bureau
of Science which desired to investigate the western mountain region of
Cagayan, he proceeded to the mouth of the Abulug River. As the sea
was very calm it proved possible to cross the bar and ascend the river to
the town of Abulug in the ship's boats.
At this point the baggage was transferred to very light-draft native
boats known as barangayans and the party consisting of Lieutenant-
Governor Villamor, of Apayao; Colonel Taylor, director of the Fifth
Constabulary District; Governor William F. Pack, of Benguet, and the
undersigned, proceeded up the river.
The Spanish Government never succeeded in gaining a foothold in
the mountain region of Apayao. During the insurrection, Lieutenant
Gilmore of the United States Navy and his fellow-captives were taken into
the southern part of it by insurgents and were there abandoned. They
were overtaken by the United States troops which went in pursuit of
their captors and the whole party of Americans finally got through to
the coast by descending the river on rafts and in the barangayans of the
So far as is known no white man had ever penetrated the northern
and central portions of Apayao until the undersigned in company with
Dr. Paul C. Freer, Director of the Bureau of Science, Sr. Bias Villamor,
Major Crawford, and Lieutenant Atkins, of the Philippines Constab-
ulary, with twenty-five men and the necessary carriers, started in 1906
from Piddig in north Ilocos, ascended the western slopes of the Cor-
dillera and descended its eastern slopes to Dalloas, a rancheria near the
headwaters of the Abulug Biver.
From this place the descent of the river was subsequently made on
bamboo rafts. The party stopped at all important rancherias and
established friendly relations with all natives met. In spite of the
unsavory reputation hitherto borne by the wild men of this region no
opposition whatever was encountered.
A few months later Major Crawford undertook an independent Con-
stabulary expedition into this country. He was indiscreet enough, when
approaching Guenned, to allow enemies of the Guenned people to ac-
company him and was in consequence attacked and defeated, which was
most unfortunate, as American prestige in this region necessarily suffered
He subsequently returned with a punitive expedition and was again
attacked at the scene of his first skirmish. He finally succeeded in
entering an important barrio of Guenned where he inflicted a limited
amount of damage by burning houses and cutting down cocoanut trees.
It is needless to say that these occurrences did not tend to increase
the popularity of Americans in Apayao and as the river immediately
in front of Guenned was swift, deep and so choked with rocks as to
make the passage very dangerous, the people of this place were in a
position to cut the communications of any force which operated above
The original plan of establishing the capital of the subprovince near
the center of its mountainous portion was therefore necessarily aban-
doned for the time being. Sr. Bias Villamor was appointed lieutenant-
governor and was directed to take station at Tauit near the point where
the Abulug Biver leaves the mountains and four hours travel by boat
The task which confronted him when he proceeded to his post in July,
1907, was one of peculiar difficulty. It was necessary to provide quarters
for himself and for a company of Constabulary soldiers in a dense
forest at a point remote from civilization. The only line of communica-
tion with the outside world was afforded by the Abulug Biver, which
can hardly be navigated during the dry season on account of low water
and is swift and dangerous during the rains.
The inhabitants of the country adjacent to the lower portion of this
river are for the most part Negritos. They had been abused by the
Christian natives and their heads had been diligently sought by the
wild Tingians of the mountains, so that they were always ready to
greet strangers with poisoned arrows.
The mountain region was inhabited by the most inveterate head-
hunters of northern Luzon. They had never experienced governmental
control of any sort and most of them had never even seen a white, man.
As we now ascended the river we found that considerable areas of
rich agricultural land hitherto unoccupied by reason of fear of head-
hunters had been cleared and were being cultivated by Ilocanos and
Ibanags. The Negritos no longer took to the woods on our approach
nor showed any inclination to shoot arrows at us. Having been assured
of adequate protection against the head-hunters they are settling in
considerable numbers along the river, are raising a good deal of corn
and rice, and in a number of instances have built fairly decent houses,
an unprecedented thing for Negritos! We stopped at two of their
settlements and numbers of them came in to greet us.
At Tauit we found a large and comfortable Government building
which is used for a residence and office building by the lieutenant-
governor and the deputy of the provincial treasurer, and for the sub-
provincial post-office. We also found a well-constructed barrack build-
ing occupied by an exceedingly well-disciplined and efficient Constabulary
Subsequently we visited the rancherias of Tauit, Burayutan, Guenned
Uaga, and Bolo and then returned to Abulug and Aparri.
We took with us, at their request, Bunnad, headman of Guenned,
who fought Major Crawford; Unni, chief of a neighboring rancheria;
two young men, two boys and a little girl, who desired to go to Manila.
Their friends and neighbors believed that they would never return and
their reappearance will create a sensation which, however, will be
insignificant when compared with that which will be produced by their
wonderful stories of their experiences while at Manila and on their
Lieutenant-Governor Villamor has established the friendliest relations
with the people throughout the greater part of his subprovince, has
already gained a strong influence over them and has used it effectively
in completely checking head-hunting raids against the Christian and
Negrito inhabitants of the lowlands of Cagayan. Head-hunting expedi-
tions have ceased to go out from Tauit, Burayutan, Guenned and Uaga
and are rapidly becoming rare in parts of the eastern and central
mountain regions of the subprovince.
It is now safe to transfer the capital to Magapta, which occupies a
good strategic position at the point of union of the three most important
branches of the Abulug Eiver.
A Constabulary post will also be established in the near future
at Talifugo where it will be easy to cut the regular line of march
along which the people from the settlements of central Apayao go to
attack those of the southern part of the subprovince. It is hoped that
within another year instances of head taking will have become rare,
although with the inhabitants of this region the occurrence of a death
from any cause is considered a reason for the taking of one or more heads,
so that the custom will doubtless die hard.
On the other hand the people of Apayao have many good qualities.
They are physically well developed and are quite cleanly. They possess
a high degree of intelligence. They erect beautifully constructed houses.
Their women are well clothed and both men and women love handsome
ornaments. They are quite industrious agriculturists and are now beg-
ging for seed and for domestic animals in order that they may emulate
their Christian neighbors in the raising of agricultural products.
Seed and a limited number of animals will be furnished them and
there will be opened for their benefit an exchange where they can market
their produce and purchase at moderate cost the commodities which they
It is proposed to employ some 1^3,700 in clearing the Abulug Kiver of
dangerous obstructions, at least as far up as Magapta, and to build a
trail from that place to Talifugo.
Eeference was made in the last annual report of the Secretary of the
Interior to the necessity for a trail connecting Baguio in Benguet with
Suyoc in the mineral region of southern Lepanto and following the crest
of the mountain range so as to avoid all rivers and furnish a direct line
of communication not liable to interruption during the rainy season.
During the past nine months work has been pushed on this trail with
great energy both from the south and the north and at the present time
the two ends are but a few miles apart.
Starting at an altitude of 4,700 feet, this trail rises gradually to a
height of 7,200 feet and then as gradually falls to 5,000 feet. It passes
above the pine belt and extends for a considerable distance through oak
forests in a region where frosts are of nightly occurrence for weeks at
a time and where many fruits and vegetables of the temperate zone can
be grown to good advantage. The grade is everywhere low, in many
places not more than 3 per cent. Side trails give connection between
this trail and the Igorot settlements at lower levels and it is already
serving as a main line of communication between the north country and
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE MOUNTAIN PROVINCE.
At the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1908, the subprovinces
of Amburayan, Lepanto, Bontoc and Kalinga collectively formed the
Province of Lepanto-Bontoc. The Ifugao country was a part of the
Province of Nueva Vizcaya and Apayao was a subprovince of Cagayan.
It had proved impracticable for the governor of Nueva Yizcaya
personally to familiarize himself with the conditions throughout the
country of the Ifugaos or to spend the necessary time among those people
to get into close touch with them and to win the control over them which
can be obtained only by personal influence. Lieutenant Gallman, of
the Constabulary, was in fact discharging the duties of a lieutenant-gov-
ernor in this region, with no legal authority to do so, and his transfer to
some other part of the Archipelago might have resulted in the early
undoing of the results of five years of patient work. Furthermore, the
opening up of the Polis Mountain trail had brought the Ifugao country
into closer touch with Bontoc and with Bayombong, the capital of Nueva
Vizcaya, and had made it about one-third as expensive to get supplies
in from Tagudin by way of Bontoc as by way of Dagupan, Tayug and
Bayombong. The necessity for frequent journeys to Bayombong was
producing disastrous results among the Ifugaos, many of whom sickened
and even died as the result of trips into the hot lowlands.
Cervantes had ceased to be a geographically suitable site for the capital
of Lepanto-Bontoc, as the growth of the province through the addition
of new territory to the north and east had left this place far to one side
of the centers of population and of area. It was moreover, and must
necessarily remain, an unhealthful town.
The governor of Lepanto-Bontoc was at the same time in effect the
lieutenant-governor of Lepanto and when he was absent in any other sub-
province Lepanto was left without a head. The provincial board of
Cagayan was not familiar with the needs of a wild population and as
a result affairs did not always go well in the subprovince of Apayao,
while so long as authority in the wild man's territory in northern Luzon
was divided between the provincial governors of Benguet, Lepanto-
Bontoc, Nueva Vizcaya and Cagayan, the establishment and perpetuation
of a definite and consistent governmental policy in this region was a
matter of no little difficulty. Finally the subdivision of this region,
where important engineering projects needed to be carried out, had
resulted in a corresponding subdivision of funds available for such pro-
jects and had made it difficult to get enough money together in Benguet
and Apayao to allow of pushing rapidly to completion any important
These difficulties led the undersigned to recommend to the Commission
the establishment of a province to be known as the Mountain Province
and to include as separate subprovinces, each with its lieutenant-governor,
Benguet, Amburayan, Lepanto, Bontoc, Kalinga, Apayao and the Ifugao
country of JNTueva Vizcaya, the latter being coextensive with the former
Spanish comandancia of Quiangan. It was further recommended that
the capital of the province be at Bontoc, which has a cool and most health-
ful climate and is the central point from which the main natural lines
of communication radiate.
The Commission approved these recommendations and made them
effective by Act No. 1876, passed on August 18, 1908.
Under the new arrangement, with a lieutenant-governor constantly
present in each subprovince, the governor will be free to go at once to
any place where his assistance is needed or where he desires to investigate
conditions. He should, and doubtless will, spend the greater part of
his time in the saddle traveling over the immense territory which comes
under his control. He will be able to establish and carry out a fixed
policy throughout the entire extent of this great mountain region, which
extends from the southern boundary of Benguet to the extreme northern
end of Luzon, and will be sufficiently familiar with conditions in each
subprovince so that in the event of the death, resignation or removal of
a lieutenant-governor he can immediately assume control.
The total fund accruing to the Mountain Province on the basis of
its population will be considerable and will make possible the inaugura-
tion and the fairly prompt completion of important improvements, first
among which must come the opening of additional lines of communica-
tion, especially in the subprovinces of Kalinga and Apayao.
It is believed that this reorganization is the most important forward
step yet made in establishing law and order and bringing about a general
improvement of conditions throughout the northern mountain region of
TRANSFER OF ILONGOT COUNTRY TO NUEVA VIZCAYA.
The territory inhabited by the Ilongots was in part included within
the limits of Nueva Vizcaya, while other parts of it lay in the Provinces
of Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Tayabas and Isabela. Only in Nueva Viz-
caya had any effort been made to bring these very troublesome wards of
the government under control, and as the four other regions referred to
are all contiguous to Nueva Vizcaya, the undersigned recommended that
they be added to the latter province.
ESTABLISHMENT OF A PRISON AT B0NT0C.
Experience having shown that the sending of wild men from the Luzon
highlands to Bilibid Prison at Manila was, in most instances, equivalent
to a death sentence, the undersigned further recommended the establish-
ment of a prison at Bontoc, where prisoners could be confined under what
would be to them more normal conditions and where they could be taught
carpentry, basket making and other useful employments. Both this rec-
ommendation and that relative to the transfer of the Ilongot country
to Nueva Vizcaya were approved and were put into effect by the act above
CONTEMPLATED IMPROVEMENTS IN THE MOUNTAIN PROVINCE.
During the present year it is proposed to complete the hill trail be-
tween Bagnio and Suyoc, to construct a new low grade trail 35 miles
long from Cervantes to Bontoc, to construct a trail 32 miles long from
Banaue to the north through the Ifugao country to Mayoyao and Bunsian,
to complete the Tabuc trail, to stake out a trail down the Saltan Eiver
Valley which the inhabitants have undertaken to construct if given a
line on which to work, to begin a trail extending from near Malaueg to
Magapta in Apayao, to build a trail from Balbalasan to the northern
Tingian rancherias in Abra, to bridge the Abra Eiver at Cervantes, to
blow the dangerous rocks out of the Abulug Eiver at least as far up as
Magapta, to construct telephone lines from Bontoc to Lubuagan and
to Banaue, and to erect necessary provincial buildings at Bontoc and
MURDER OF AMERICANS BY NON-CHRISTIANS.
During the month of May, Harry M. Ickis, a mining engineer in
the employ of the division of mines of the Bureau of Science, was
murdered by Manobos in the almost inaccessible mountains lying on
the border line between the subprovince of Bukidnon and the subprovince
of Butuan. Only a few weeks later, before news of this unfortunate
event had reached Manila, Mr. H. E. Everett, a forester in the employ
of the Bureau of Forestry, and Mr. Tilden E. Wakely, a teacher in the
employ of the Bureau of Education, with three Filipino companions,
were murdered while asleep in the mountains of eastern Negros by a
Both of these crimes were entirely unprovoked. The first seems to
have been due to the fact that the principal actor had grown tired of
serving as a carrier for Mr. Ickis and at the same time had a vague
idea of getting square with the white race because his father had been
imprisoned by the Spaniards fifteen years before, while in the case of
Messrs. Everett and Wakely the criminal "felt like killing some one"
and therefore murdered them in their sleep.
These two deplorable events, the first of their kind since American
occupation, show that we have been overconfident in our belief that
the wild people of the mountains are invariably harmless when kindly
and fairly treated. Fortunately Government control has been extended
to the region where Mr. Ickis was murdered and several of those
concerned in his death are already in custody, while the others are
being ceaselessly pursued. Climatic conditions make it impossible to
operate against the murderers of Messrs. Everett and Wakely until
October or November, but the fact that such a crime can occur and
remain unknown for weeks in the interior of the Island of Negros, and
that punishment must be delayed for months owing to the impracti-
cability of entering this region during the rainy season, emphasizes the
necessity of extending as soon as practicable to the interior of Negros
the policy which has already resulted in making most of the territory of
the Mountain Province entirely safe.
THE BUREAU OF HEALTH.
The report of the Director of Health for the previous fiscal year was
commented upon quite freely both by the medical and the lay press and
as a result of its publication the Director of Health has received so
many letters of inquiry that it has been impossible for him to answer
them all individually.
In his report for the present year he therefore takes opportunity to
furnish the information requested in many of these letters and to give
a general statement of the health conditions in the Philippine Islands
and of the sanitary work accomplished under the American regime which
is so comprehensive and at the same time so concise that the undersigned
does not feel like attempting to abstract, or further to condense it, but
deems it wiser to refer those interested to the original document which
will be printed for separate distribution.
THE PHILIPPINE GENERAL HOSPITAL.
The construction of the Philippine General Hospital, for which
f*780,000 was appropriated in the bill for the previous fiscal year, has
been delayed pending the final completion of plans and the receipt of
bids. The plans have now been perfected and reasonably satisfactory
bids have been received. The hospital will consist of an administration
building and five two-story separate ward pavilions with a capacity of
thirty patients upon each floor, a building for surgical work and separate
buildings for kitchen, nurses' home, free dispensary and out-clinic,
ambulance stable and morgue. Abundant room is available for the
erection of additional ward pavilions as required. The undersigned
had the pleasure of laying the corner stone of this hospital on March 2,
THE BAGUIO HOSPITAL.
The new building is now occupied although it is in some respects still
incomplete. It is on a site commanding a magnificent view, swept by
constant breezes and fully exposed to the sunshine the need of which
is constantly felt in the cool highlands of Benguet. The building has
ample accommodations for thirty patients in its wards and for fourteen
patients in private rooms. The need for it was most urgent as con-
ditions arising from the overcrowding of the old building had become
unbearable and it had been necessary to provide accommodation for a
number of patients in tents. This arrangement, while fairly satis-
factory during the dry season, would be impossible in July, August
NEW PRIVATE HOSPITALS.
The University Hospital, conducted under the auspices of the Prot-
estant Episcopal Church of America, has been completed and opened to
the public. It affords accommodations for twenty-five charity patients
and ten pay or private-room patients. It is situated at the center of one
of the poorest sections of Manila and is kept constantly full. More than
2,500 out patients are treated monthly at its dispensary. The Bureau
of Health furnishes the greater part of the medicines used by it for the
The mission service of the Methodist Church has opened a fifty-bed
hospital for women and children, known as the Mary J. Johnston Me-
morial Hospital. The building is located on the Tondo beach in the
midst of a district inhabited by the most destitute people of Manila and
this institutions will largely confine its work to the very poor. The
Bureau of Health supplies a portion of the medicines which it uses in
its charitable work.
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS MEDICAL ASSOCIATION.
The most important session of this association ever held took place
on February 26, 27, 28 and 29, 1908. Among the foreign delegates
there were present —
Dr. R. D. Keith, physiologist and assistant pathologist, Straits and Federated
Malay States Medical School; delegate from the Straits Settlements.
Dr. Francis Clark, medical officer of health, and delegate from His Britannic
Majesty's Colony of Hongkong.
Prof. Taichi Kitajima, M. D., of the Infectious Diseases Institute, delegate
from His Imperial Japanese Majesty's Government.
Dr. Cheng Hao, delegate from His Imperial Chinese Majesty's Government.
Sir Allen Perry, the honorable principal civil medical officer of Ceylon, and
delegate from Ceylon.
Prof. T. Ishigami, M. D., of the Ishigami Institute for Infectious Diseases,
Dr. Hays, delegate from Siam.
Lieutenant Tyley, R. S. M. C, Hongkong.
Dr. Vassal, of the Institute Pasteur, Nhatrang, Annam, delegate from Indo-
Dr. H. Fraser, of the Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, delegate
from the Federated Malay States.
The importance of the opportunity thus afforded for conference as to
sanitary methods and results between such distinguished experts can
hardly be overestimated. As a direct result of this meeting there was
organized the "Far Eastern Medical Association" which will have its
first meeting at Manila in 1910.
SANITARY STATISTICS FOR MANILA.
It is believed that the sanitary statistics for Manila are now ap-
proximately correct except for births. Three years ago not more than
40 per cent of the actual births were reported to the Bureau of Health.
At the present time about 75 per cent are reported.
INCREASE IN POPULATION.
So far as can be judged from the statistics and other information
available the population of the Islands was substantially stationary
during the latter years of Spanish rule and the following period of war
and pestilence, but for the past three or four years the number of people
has increased at a satisfactory ratio throughout the Archipelago. In this
connection a comparison of the number of persons recently vaccinated
by the Bureau of Health in certain provinces with the number of in-
habitants reported for such provinces by the official census of 1903 is
Name of province.
As the Bureau of Health can not have vaccinated all of the people in
any one of these provinces it is evident that there has been a material
increase in the population of each.
IMPROVEMENTS AT SIBUL SPRINGS.
It is definitely known that the waters of Sibul Springs which were
formerly quite extensively used, are very beneficial when taken internally
by persons afflicted with diseases of the intestinal tract especially those of
a chronic catarrhal nature, and that bathing in these waters is very
refreshing and apparently of considerable value as an aid to the cure of
the diseases for which their drinking is indicated. Access to the springs
was difficult during the dry season and almost impossible after the rains
set in, but the Insular Government has now completed a good road to
them from San Miguel de Mayumo.
When the undersigned visited them in November, 1907, it was found
that both the springs and the baths connected with them were in a state
of complete abandonment. It seemed probable that the waters were suf-
fering direct contamination from neighboring carabao wallows and were
unsafe for drinking purposes. Laboratory examination proved this to
be the case and funds were at once made available for safeguarding the
springs from contamination and for renovating and enlarging the baths.
The work provided for has been completed and recent examinations
have shown that the waters are now free from amoebae and other dan-
gerous animal and plant organisms. Their sale by druggists has been
renewed and their use at the springs has been greatly facilitated. The
Philippine Legislature has appropriated f*l 0,000 for further improve-
ments of the springs and their immediate surroundings.
The work of boring artesian wells in provincial towns steadily con-
tinues. In a number of instances the death rate has fallen 50 per cent
in towns where such wells have been sunk and the importance of impure
water as a source of disease in these Islands has thus been conclusively
ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD AND DRUGS ACT.
The examinations of foods made in connection with the administration
of the Food and Drugs Act have revealed such a condition of affairs as to
suggest that much of the illness which has heretofore been ascribed to the
tropical climate of the Philippines was due rather to chemicals added
to preserved foods intended for use in these Islands than to any directly
injurious effect of the climate itself.
There were examined during the year 896 samples of food and drug
products of which 89 were absolutely rejected and 172, which were
misbranded, were released after being properly relabeled. Many impor-
tations were subsequently either denied admittance or admitted only
after they had been relabeled because they were goods of the same kinds
as those already passed upon as a result of previous analyses. There
have been very few willful evasions of the law, and with one noteworthy
exception, the merchants of the Philippines have shown a highly com-
mendable spirit in accepting philosophically losses necessarily imposed
upon them through the rejection of importations made in good faith, as
well as in their efforts to comply with the law.
The Bureau of Health has maintained a dispensary at its central
office, another at San Lazaro Hospital, a third at the Civil Hospital, and
five smaller ones in connection with the five health stations in Manila.
The Bureau has supplied St. Luke's Hospital, St. Paul's Hospital, the
University Hospital, the Methodist Hospital and the Philippine Medical
School Dispensary with considerable quantities of drugs to be used for
the benefit of the poor while the liberal free distribution of quinin^ in
fever-smitten regions has afforded relief to a large number of sufferers.
MEDICAL INSPECTION OF SCHOOLS.
The cost of the medical inspection of the schools of Manila is now
defrayed by the Bureau of Education. The work has been steadily pros-
ecuted throughout the year with the result that 3,300 cases have been
recommended for treatment. For the most part these have been cared
for at the health stations of the Bureau of Health and at the Civil
Hospital, St. Paul's Hospital and the University Hospital.
ADMINISTRATION OF PUBLIC CHARITIES.
Funds to the extent of some !P80,000 are appropriated annually for
the maintenance of public charities administered by the Bureau of Health.
This amount provides clothing, lodging and subsistence for more than
400 unfortunates and makes possible the furnishing of outside relief to
some thousands of others. The medical officers of the Bureau of Health
have charge of the admission of patients to 150 free beds provided by
the Municipal Board and the Philippine Medical School at the San Juan
de Dios and St. Paul's Hospitals.
MEDICAL EXAMINATION OF IMMIGRANTS.
The satisfactory working of the system which provides for the medical
examination of many of our immigrants at their ports of departure is
shown by the fact that of the 7,864 examined on arrival it was necessary
to reject only 51. Most of these rejections were on account of a virulent
form of trachoma which is almost unknown in these Islands and which
it is very desirable to keep out.
One million six hundred eighty-six thousand seven hundred and
sixty-seven persons were vaccinated against smallpox. The administra-
tion of this work has been so improved that its cost is now approxi-
mately 2% centavos per capita as against 7£ eentavos a few years since.
It is a remarkable fact, and one which bears eloquent testimony to the
care used by the Bureau of Science in manufacturing vaccine, and by the
Bureau of Health in using it, that not a single death has occurred as a
result of this enormous number of vaccinations, especially when the
results obtained in other countries under more favorable conditions are
considered. In Germany, for instance, it is stated on reliable authority
that there is an average of one death for each 65,000 vaccinations.
Little opposition is now encountered and the chief difficulty in vacci-
nating the entire population of the Philippines arises from the physical
impossibility of keeping virus active until it can reach and be used in
the more inaccessible portions of the Archipelago. The Director of
Health while in the United States will investigate the possibility of obtain-
ing light portable refrigerating plants for keeping vaccine cool during
Between the months of November and March frequent complaints
were received from provincial vaccinators that they were not getting the
usual or proper number of "takes." As neither the Bureau of Health
nor the Bureau of Science could offer any adequate explanation of the
difficulty, and as the importance of keeping the vaccine active until it
could be used was apparent, the undersigned deemed it desirable to ap-
point a committee composed of Dr. Eichard P. Strong, Director of the
Biological Laboratory of the Bureau of Science; Dr. Paul Clements,
of the Bureau of Health, who had long been connected with provincial
vaccinations and was thoroughly conversant with the methods employed,
and Dr. Philip K. Gilman, of the Philippine Medical School, who was
not connected with either Bureau and who was named chairman of the
committee. The following instructions were given to each member :
"Baguio, Benguet, April 23, 1908.
"Sir: In view of the difficulty which has recently arisen in securing in the
provinces a satisfactory percentage of takes with the vaccine virus prepared by the
Bureau of Science, and of the failure of the efforts of the Director of the Bureau of
Science and of the Director of the Bureau of Health to find a satisfactory explana-
tion of the results secured; and in view of the great importance of manufacturing
the best possible vaccine virus and of employing the best possible methods in its
preservation and use, both in Manila and in the provinces, I have thought it best to
appoint a committee consisting of Dr. Philip K. Gilman, Dr. Richard P. Strong and
Dr. Paul Clements, to go into the whole question of the methods at present employed
in the manufacture, preservation and use of vaccine virus, with a view to determin-
ing, if practicable, what is the cause of the difficulty which has recently arisen, and
what methods should be employed in the manufacture, preservation and use of
vaccine virus in order that the virus may be of the best possible quality, may be
successfully preserved for the longest possible time, and may be used in such a way
as to produce the best possible results.
"To this end the committee should study and report upon :
"1. The method of manufacturing, preserving, testing and delivering vaccine
virus employed by the Bureau of Science; also the length of time virus is kept by
the Bureau of Science before being delivered to the Bureau of Health.
"2. The methods of storing«and shipping virus employed by the Bureau of Health
and the length of time during which virus is kept by the Bureau of Health before
"3. The methods of preserving and using the virus employed by vaccinators in
the provinces. Special attention should be given to the question whether the virus
is under ordinary circumstances exposed to the sun, and if so, for how long.
"4. The methods employed in making vaccinations in the provinces, and the
possibility of removal of vaccine by persons freshly vaccinated so as to prevent its
taking. As a check upon the possible removal of vaccine by persons vaccinated,
I suggest that some small animals be taken into the provinces and that the actual
potency of vaccine virus which is not giving satisfactory results on human beings
be determined by experiment. Animal experiments should also be employed to
determine the potency of the vaccine which has been kept under the usual conditions
for varying periods by the Bureau of Science and the Bureau of Health, to determine
whether there is any deterioration. At the same time a series of experiments
should be carried on to determine how quickly vaccine virus, found to be good,
will deteriorate to the point of becoming useless if exposed to the sun, and how
soon it will deteriorate under ordinary temperature in the shade or within such
receptacles as are ordinarily employed in the provinces in preserving it after ice
has given out.
"I suggest that as little as possible be said relative to the appointment and work
of this committee, to the end that the investigations as to the methods of preserving
virus and conducting vaccinations in the provinces may be examined into without
any previous intimation that such an examination is to be made, in order that the
conditions found may be those which have existed during the past few months.
"Dean C. Worcester, Secretary of the Interior."
The committee has completed its work in the city of Manila and at
my request has rendered a preliminary report thereon in order that its
recommendations might be put into effect as soon as possible. -It has
found that virus kept in an ice-box at a temperature of 10° 0. was still
active after seven weeks and the experiment is being continued. The
period of potency for virus kept in the dark at ordinary room temperature
was not usually more than one week, while that kept in a dark room at
a temperature of 37° C. sometimes became entirely inert after twenty-
four to forty-eight hours. The period of potency for virus exposed to
the direct sunlight, the virus used being previously active and fresh, is
from twenty-four to forty-eight hours, the potency being entirely de-
stroyed in that time.
The committee reached the following conclusions :
"1. The method of manufacturing, preserving and testing vaccine virus employed
by the biological laboratory of the Bureau of Science is in acordance with the most
approved modern procedures, and after a study of the recent literature on the
subject and a consideration of the methods employed in other countries in the
manufacture of vaccine virus, we have nothing to suggest in the way of improvement.
"2. In regard to the length of time the virus is kept by the Bureau of Science
before sending it out, we believe that a period of at least one week should elapse
between the date the virus is manufactured and the date it is sent out. This time
should elapse in order that the majority of the saphrophytic bacteria, always
present in the virus, may be destroyed by the action of the glycerin added to the
lymph and the necessary tests of the purity of the vaccine be performed. While
at the temperature of cold storage (10° C.) virus has been repeatedly shown to be
potent after five months, we should recommend that virus over one month old be
not sent out. This recommendation is made because it is a well-established fact
that sudden variations in temperature exert a very unfavorable influence on the
virus. Such variation of temperature must occur in the virus when it is delivered
to the Bureau of Health and especially when it is shipped to the provinces, and
therefore, virus as fresh as possible should be obtained for this purpose.
"3. In regard to the method of storing and shipping virus employed by the
Bureau of Health, your Committee believes that some improvement might be made
on the method of obtaining the virus from the Bureau of Science, namely, that
instead of sending it by hand, one of the specially devised ice-boxes used for sending
virus to the provinces be sent to the Bureau of Science, in which box the virus
may be placed on ice during its transit to the Bureau of Health. Furthermore,
the temperature at which the virus is stored at the Bureau of Health should not
be over 15° C. Your committee has found upon investigation that in the past the
virus has been kept at a temperature of 25° C. or over, for periods of as long as
ten days, there being but 10 pounds of ice supplied daily to the refrigerator. This
high temperature has undoubtedly exerted a very unfavorable action, at least on
the potency of the virus. In regard to the method employed by the Bureau of
Health in transporting the virus to the provinces, so far as has been observed by
the committee, we have no improvements to suggest, provided that the virus is
shipped as promptly as possible after being obtained from the Bureau of Science.
"Furthermore, your committee recommends that unless the virus can be kept
at 15° C. at the Bureau of Health, the same Bureau make requisition for virus
only at the time it is required for immediate delivery and use.
"4. As it has been very difficult and in some instances impossible to deter-
mine the special lot of virus used and complained of, it seems to the Com-
mittee that in the future instructions should be issued to those concerned to
the effect that any complaints against virus should state the number of 1 the
virus used and found unsatisfactory.
"5. In reviewing the complaints against the vaccine made by various persons,
it becomes evident that there is some diversity of opinion in regard to what
constitutes a good percentage of "takes" in a series of general vaccinations.
Your committee believes that 50 per cent of positive results would constitute
a very good average in general vaccinations. Dr. W. K. Beatty, district health
officer of the Thirteenth District, who has had occasion to make numerous
complaints regarding the virus, writes from Nueva Caceres under date of
June, 1908, reporting a total general average of 53§ per cent, of "takes" in twenty-
one months of vaccination of 515,071 persons; that is, 275,048 successful cases.
"There still remains to be investigated by your committee, 3, the methods of
preserving and using the virus employed by vaccinators in the provinces; 4, the
methods employed in making vaccinations in the provinces and the possibility
of removal of vaccine by persons freshly vaccinated to prevent its taking."
The proper instructions have been given by the undersigned to insure
the carrying out of the recommendations of this committee and an
arrangement has been made under which the Bureau of Health will
ship its virus direct from the cold storage depository of the Bureau of
INSTALLATION OF MANILA SEWER SYSTEM.
This important work, so intimately connected with the sanitation of
the city, is nearing completion. Twenty-four and four-tenths miles of
street sewers have been laid during the year, giving a total of 38.4 miles
laid and leaving only 13.6 miles of the total contracted for. Pumps
and pump houses have been contracted for; work on the latter has
begun, and the entire system should be in working order before the
close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1909. Manila will then be the
only city in the Orient having a complete water carriage system for the
disposal of its sewage.
SWEEPING PUBLIC BUILDINGS.
On account of the prevalence of tuberculosis and of careless habits
of spitting and the consequent , danger of communicating this disease
by dried sputum if floors were swept carelessly or while public build-
ings were occupied, the Director of Health called the attention of the
Executive Secretary to the desirability of having floors thoroughly
sprinkled with wet sawdust before sweeping and of having sweeping
begin only after buildings were vacated. This procedure is now uni-
INFANT MORTALITY IN MANILA.
A considerable amount of public interest has been aroused in the
shockingly high infant mortality among the Filipino children of Manila
and the Director of Health expresses the opinion that as much is now
being done by the health authorities, by the Gota de Leche Society, by
the churches, by the schools, by private physicians and by private indi-
viduals as in any other city of equal size in the world. Nevertheless
the death rate of infants continues distressingly high and much remains
to be done. Four thousand four hundred and eighty-four children
under one year of age have died during the year. These deaths con-
stitute approximately 44 per cent, of the total number.
IMPROVEMENT IN AMBULANCE SERVICE.
The Bureau of Health provides ambulance service for the transporta-
tion of cases of dangerous, communicable disease, and of cases for the
Civil Hospital, while the Police Department transports emergency cases.
Arrangements have been made for further improving facilities by estab-
lishing a central station near the Bridge of Spain where modern motor-
car ambulances will be installed. This will result in decreased expense
and more satisfactory service.
Asiatic cholera has twice invaded Manila during the year and has
been present in the provinces, where it has caused serious loss of life.
In view of various unfounded statements as to the relative frequency
and importance of cholera epidemics during the period when the Phil-
ippines were under Spanish rule and that following the American
occupation, it has seemed to me desirable to go carefully into the
history of cholera in the Philippines from the date of its earliest
recorded occurrence to the present time, in order to arrived at a clear
understanding of the facts and to deduce therefrom such conclusions
as would seem to be justified.
This subject has been treated in a special report, which will be for-
warded to the Commission as soon as certain statistics for the years
1882 to 1896, inclusive, which are being compiled from the church
records of the city of Manila, can be completed.
It can now be stated with certainty that two important factors are
primarily responsible for the present high mortality among the Fili-
pinos. One of these, namely, infant mortality, has already been referred
to. The other is the presence, in the vast majority of the inhabitants,
of intestinal parasites, the hookworm being the most dangerous of these.
An absolute demonstration of the highly prejudicial influence of these
organisms has been made in Bilibid Prison.
While the sanitary management of this institution continued under
the control of the warden the annual death rate steadily increased until
it reached the appalling figure of 238 per thousand. Sanitary control
was then transferred to the Director of Health. The application of
ordinary measures such as relief from overcrowding, improving methods
for disposition of night soil, bettering trie drainage system, regulating
diet, etc., resulted in bringing the mortality down to some 70 per
thousand, after which further progress could not be made. It was
observed that patients were dying of illnesses which should not have
killed them and this led to a systematic examination of the stools of all
prisoners. Eighty-four per cent, were found to be infected with at least
one kind of intestinal parasite, 50 per cent, had two or more and 20 per
cent, had three or more. Fifty-two per cent, had hookworms. Treat-
ment was successfully undertaken for the removal of these parasites after
which the death rate steadily fell until it reached the very low figure of
13 per thousand. Proper steps having been taken to prevent reinfection,
the death rate has continued low.
More than a thousand stool examinations made of persons living
throughout the Islands show that the condition of affairs in Bilibid was
fairly typical of that which prevails generally. Were it possible to apply
the measures which have proved so effective in Bilibid, an enormous im-
provement in health conditions would unquestionably result. While
this is impracticable, it is nevertheless apparent to everyone conversant
with the situation that a general campaign must be inaugurated for
ridding the inhabitants of these dangerous organisms which, even in those
cases where they fail ultimately to cause death, invariably sap the vitality
of their involuntary hosts causing anaemia, lassitude and great sus-
ceptibility to attack from a variety of diseases. It is needless to say
that as soon as the facts became known the situation was given very
careful consideration by the Director of Health who has formulated a
carefully considered plan of campaign which would already have been
inaugurated had not the prevalence of cholera made such heavy demands
upon the time and energy of his small force. The details of this plan
will be found set forth in his annual report.
At the meeting of the Philippine Medical Association heretofore
referred to, the discussion of this matter was given an important place
and the association passed the following resolution :
"Whereas it appears that the treatment of the prisoners for intestinal worms
has been an important factor in reducing the death rate at Bilibid Prison; and
"Whereas it would appear further that over three-fourths of the population of
the Philippines is at the present time infected with animal parasites ; and
"Whereas infection with these parasites can be controlled almost absolutely by
properly disposing of the human excreta which contain the ova of the parasites, and
"Whereas, The proper disposal of human excreta will at the same time remove
one of the most dangerous channels for the dissemination of other infectious
diseases: Therefore, be it
"Resolved, That the Philippine Islands Medical Association shall petition the
Government of the Philippine Islands, through the Honorable Dean C. Worcester,
Secretary of the Interior, that a commission of five properly qualified members be
appointed to decide upon the most practicable and effectual means for the proper
disposal of human excreta that can be established in these Islands.
"Be it further resolved, That the Government of the Philippine Islands be
petitioned to make such appropriation and provide such amounts for the establish-
ment of a working system for the disposal of human excreta as from the report of
this commission may appear practical and expedient."
The segregation of lepers has steadily continued. Of the 4,000
estimated to exist only about 1,000 remain to be collected and transported
to Culion. In the provinces which have now been entirely freed from
lepers more than 300 new cases of leprosy formerly appeared annually.
Now not more than 50 new cases appear, which fact alone would more
than justify the policy of segregation. It can be positively stated that
not only has the increase in the number of lepers been permanently
checked but a steady decline has begun and will continue if the present
policy is adhered to.
The segregation of lepers at Culion began in May, 1906. At this time
it was estimated that there were at least 3,500 lepers in the Islands. At
the end of the first year the estimated number had been reduced to 2,826.
At the end of the present year it was 2,486. The reduction in the num-
ber of supposed lepers during the first year resulted largely from the
discovery that many persons in Samar, Leyte, Masbate, Eomblon and
Negros had been erroneously classified as lepers when in reality suffering
from other diseases. One of the beneficent results of the campaign
against leprosy is that these unfortunates have been restored to their
rightful social status. During the past year, however, in a number of
provinces more lepers have been found than had been reported. In Albay
there were 315 as against 57 reported; in Sorsogon 121 as against 87.
These increases more than offset the erroneous diagnoses of the previous
year, and we may state with confidence that at least 300 less persons have
contracted the disease in the Philippines than during the previous year.
The attitude of the people as a whole toward the segregation work has
been admirable. The separation of husband from wife, parent from
children, or brother from sister is heartbreaking business, especially
in these Islands where family ties are very strong, but when the
necessity for this course has been explained to the unfortunates and to
their relatives, with rare exceptions they have calmly accepted their hard
lot and have often furnished valuable and active assistance to the repre-
sentatives of the law. Once transferred to the colony and accustomed to
conditions there, those who are not beyond human help at the time of
their arrival as a rule become healthier, happier, and better satisfied than
they were in their native provinces.
Mindoro, Masbate, Eomblon, Capiz, Iloilo, Antique, Oriental and
Occidental JNegros, Samar, and Leyte, have already been gone over two
or more times and may be considered free from leprosy. Cebu,
Bohol, Ambos Camarines, Albay, Batangas, Tayabas, Sorsogon, Benguet,
Lepanto-Bontoc and Ilocos Sur have been gone over once, but are not
yet regarded as being free from lepers. Ample provisions have been
made for continuing this most important work.
The construction of permanent buildings at the colony has begun. A
large reenforced-concrete warehouse has been completed and a hundred-
bed hospital of the same material is being erected. This work has been
conducted in the face of great difficulties, not the least of which is a
scarcity of laborers due to fear of leprosy, and under the circumstances
the progress made is gratifying.
X-RAY TREATMENT OF LEPROSY.
In the last annual report mention was made of the twenty-nine lepers
undergoing X-ray treatment. One was added to this number and the
results at present stand as follows: Apparently cured, 1; markedly
improved, 5; improved, 7; condition unchanged, 15; died, 2, one from
chronic amoebic dysentery, and the other from puerperal infection, death
having no connection with the X-ray treatment in either case. The
individual apparently cured was under treatment for eighteen months.
Bacteriological examinations for the bacilli of leprosy now invariably
result negatively in his case.
Five others show practically no signs of the disease but are positive
microscopically. In seven the tubercules and infiltrations have been
greatly reduced in size and in the remainder the progress of the disease
seems to have been arrested. Other treatments for leprosy which have
been recommended from time to time have been given faithful trial at
San Lazaro but the results obtained with the X-ray, while far from
satisfactory, are by far the best yet secured.
THE OPIUM HABIT.
On March 8, 1906, the Philippine Commission after giving careful
consideration to the report of the special opium committee which for
nearly two years had been engaged in gathering data in Oriental countries
where the opium habit is prevalent and in formulating its conclusions,
enacted a law designed to restrict the sale, and suppress the evils
resulting from the improper use of opium until March 1, 1908, after
which date the importation or use of this drug by any person, except for
medicinal purposes, was prohibited by Act of Congress. This law of
the Commission was largely successful in restricting the opium habit to
those who had already acquired it, but a very large majority of these
individuals continued to indulge themselves up to the last moment when
they could legally do so.
There is reason to believe that for some time prior to March 1 unscru-
pulous persons, probably through the medium of an organized corps of
instructors, began systematically to teach the use of cocaine to opium
habitues. There was great danger that one bad habit might thus be
replaced by another, and the Philippine Legislature on October 10, 1907,
repealed the first opium act and replaced it by another which embodied
also the necessary provisions restricting the use of cocaine, alpha or beta
eucaine or of any derivative or preparation of these drugs or substances.
Since March 1, the use of opium or cocaine for other than strictly me-
dicinal purposes has been unlawful and the importation of these drugs
may be made only by the Government which will not sell them to anyone
not clearly entitled by law to purchase them.
The possession of any opium pipe, hypodermic syringe, apparatus,
instrument, or paraphernalia for the use of opium or of any hypodermic
syringe for the use of cocaine, alpha or beta eucaine, or any derivative
or preparation of such drugs or substances, or any other apparatus espe-
cially designed for using any of the said drugs or substances in or on
the human body, is deemed prima facie evidence that the person in
possession of such pipe, hypodermic syringe, apparatus, instrument,
paraphernalia, or articles, has used some one of such prohibited drugs or
substances, or the drug or substance for the use of which such apparatus,
instrument or paraphernalia are especially designed, without the pre-
scription of a duly licensed and practicing physician, unless such prescrip-
tion is produced by such person.
For some time after March 1, conditions among opium users were
deplorable. Free hospital accommodations had for a long time previous
been available for those who desired them but had not been made use
of to any extent. Now the rush was so great that the San Juan de Dios
Hospital, with which the Government had a contract for the care of
opium habitues, asked to be released because it lacked proper facilities
for guarding and restraining so large a number of frantic persons.
In order to meet the emergency it proved necessary to utilize the
wards of the new insane hospital at San Lazaro where pandemonium
prevailed for some time. The thanks of the undersigned are due, and
are hereby extended, to the Chinese consul-general and to the Chinese
Chamber of Commerce for aid in dealing with their people, and to the
Eev. Mr. Studley who, at great risk to his personal safety, took up his
residence with these unfortunates and worked unremittingly as a hospital
attendant for their relief.
The results obtained at Manila were highly satisfactory. Our ex-
perience seems to show that the opium-smoking habit is not especially
difficult to treat, but in treating persons who have become accustomed
to take the drug by the mouth, or to use it hypodermically, much more
difficulty is encountered.
A contract to care for users of opium was made with the Mission
Hospital at Iloilo and has continued in effect throughout the year with
very satisfactory results.
A Government Hospital was opened at Cebu but the combined efforts
of the provincial board, the district health officer and Eev. Mr. Studley
failed to overcome the indifference or active opposition of the opium
victims of that province and of their friends. The hospital was closed
on May 27 after an unsuccessful career of forty-two days. Users of
the drug in Cebu are now being actively prosecuted. The total number
of persons thus far treated is 725 of whom 542 have been discharged
as cured, 26 have been discharged as improved and the remainder are
still under treatment.
The Bureau of Health has imported shoots of Combretum sundaicum,
which has gained so great a reputation in the treatment of the opium
habit in India, and will soon be in a position to test this remedy, which
it will do in the hope that it may prove less severe than the "reduction
treatment" which has thus far been used with the results above
It is a cause for congratulation that the Islands have remained
entirely free from plague, especially as Hongkong, Amoy and other
Chinese ports continue to suffer from annually recurring epidemics of
this disease, which appears in May, reaches its height in June or July
and then gradually declines until its disappearance in November. One
case of plague arriving on a steamship was detected and transferred
to San Lazaro Hospital for' treatment.
More cases of smallpox appeared in Manila than during the previous
year but they were practically confined to the unvaccinated. It is an
unfortunate fact that the percentage of Americans among this number
was large and that several vigorous opponents of vaccination paid for
their hostile attitude with their lives.
One case of sleeping sickness has been detected during the year and
news has been received of another suspected case in the Province of
Albay, this being the first Philippine record of the ailment.
The number of deaths from tuberculosis at Manila was slightly less
than during the previous year. This is encouraging in view of the
fact that for several previous years there had been a steady increase in
deaths from this cause. This disease, though common in the lowlands,
is almost unknown in such mountain regions as the highlands of
Benguet. At the present time the only institution for its treatment
is the Government hospital at Bilibid Prison. Active steps to combat
it have been limited to the issuance of educational circulars and the
enactment of proper ordinances in Manila.
The Filipino people are accustomed to regard it as a necessarily fatal
ailment and fail to realize that liberal diet and out-of-door life will cure
a large percentage of the persons suffering from the disease in its earlier
stages. Actual demonstration is necessary to convince them of this
fact and the undersigned is of the opinion that a temporary experimental
tuberculosis hospital should be established in the near future at some
point near Baguio, Benguet, and that should results justify such a
course, as would doubtless be the case, a permanent institution should
be established there as soon as practicable.
Eighty-four deaths from typhoid fever have been reported in Manila
as against sixty-six for the previous year. Although under existing
conditions the number of cases seems slowly to increase it is believed
that the completion of the new water system will lessen the danger and
will probably enable the health authorities to keep it from ever becoming
THE BAGUIO HOSPITAL.
The popularity of this institution has continued to increase. Last
year the number of patients was 1,371 and this year it has been 2,291,
an increase of almost 82 per cent. The Igorots are now coming in not
only from Benguet but from neighboring provinces.
A detailed review of all new legislation relative to matters affecting
the public health, and of the work of the Director of Health and of the
several divisions of his Bureau, will be found in his annual report.
NEED OF PROVINCIAL HOSPITALS.
The complaint has been made, not without some justice, that Manila
has received more than its fair share of attention at the hands of the
legislators to the neglect of the provinces which pay their full share of
taxes. The amount of relievable human suffering which exists in the
provinces chiefly populated by civilized and Christianized people is un-
believable if one has not actually seen it, while no practical measures for
combating or curing disease are known to the non- Christian people and
with them it is strictly a case of survival of the fittest.
Nothing has been more useful in gaining the good-will of the more
wild and warlike tribes than the small amount of medical and surgical
work which it has been possible to perform heretofore with the limited
Now that the belief so long prevalent in the Philippines that hospitals
are places where people go to die is passing, the undersigned believes that
the time is ripe for the establishing of several' provincial hospitals which
could be operated at moderate cost and would accomplish untold good.
THE FUTURE POLICY IN HEALTH WORK.
The undersigned concurs fully in the opinion of the Director of
Health that the direct road to the goal of permanent low morbidity and
mortality rates in the Philippine Islands is through vaccination against
smallpox, prevention of the reintroduction of bubonic plague, improve-
ment in water supplies, elimination of intestinal parasites, systematic
warfare against tuberculosis, the eradication of malarial mosquitoes, and
the controlling of infant mortality by improved hygiene, and he further
concurs in and makes his own the following recommendations of the
Director of Health to these ends :
"1. That in view of the fact that the elimination of the intestinal parasites
of the residents of the Philippine Islands bids fair to save a large number of
lives, steps should be taken to accomplish this work and render conditions such
that reinfection will not occur. To bring this about, a system for the disposal
of night soil should be inaugurated, preferably by the Oriental method whereby
this substance is used for fertilizing mulberry trees from which a profit may
be realized instead of an additional burden upon the tax payers.
"2. That the sum of 1*25,000 be set aside for building a few small isolating
pavilions and treating therein a limited number of tubercular cases, and that
an outdoor dispensary be established in the city of Manila at which only persons
afflicted with tuberculosis be treated; one of the principal objects of such a
dispensary to be its use as a means of diffusing knowledge of the home treatment
of this disease and the precautions that should be taken in order not to infect
"3. That at least three provincial hospitals with a capacity of thirty beds
each be provided; the initial cost of each to be about ^=30,000.
"4. That a committee of five physicians be naxhed to make a further study
of the causes of excessive infant mortality with the view of reducing the death
rate among infants.
"5. That an extensive laboratory study be made of cholera, with a view of
ascertaining the exact cause of the appearance and disappearance of cholera
spirilli in the Philippine Islands."
THE QUARANTINE SERVICE.
Effective quarantine has been maintained against foreign countries
badly infected with dangerous communicable, disease and so far as is
known no such disease has been introduced into the Philippines during
the year. The success which has been had in excluding bubonic plague
is especially gratifying.
With the approaching completion at Manila of wharves along which
deep-sea going merchant vessels may lie, a new danger would confront
us in the increased facility with which rats might land from infected
ships were not special measures taken to minimize this risk. The
structures beneath the floors of these wharves are being made smooth so
that as little foothold as possible is afforded for rats and the several
wharves will be connected with the shore by bridges which can be lifted
at night and at other times when they are not in use so as to prevent
the escape of rats to the shore.
Beginning with January 1, 1907, the medical provisions of the United
States immigration laws became applicable to Chinese desiring to enter
the Islands. At the time this law took effect more than 5,000 Chinese,
many of whom had resided in the Philippines for thirty years or more,
were absent on visits to China. When they desired to return a large
number of them were prevented from doing so because they were af-
flicted with quarantinable diseases, of which trachoma was the most im-
portant. Very great hardship was thus worked through the enforced
separation of many of these men from their families residing in the
Philippines. Had they not gone to China they would not have been
molested and many of them doubtless left the Islands in ignorance that
the fact that they were afflicted with trachoma would prevent their return.
Chinese from the district of Amoy were particularly affected by this law
and in March it was estimated that more than 3,000 individuals who
desired to return to Manila, but had been prevented from doing so, were
assembled at that port, where there developed a resentment against the
United States which became increasingly bitter. It was charged that
many of these would-be immigrants had been unlawfully prevented from
returning and under the circumstances it seemed best to direct Passed
Assistant Surgeon Victor G. Heiser to proceed to Amoy with a view to
ascertaining whether some of the large number of Chinese who had been
refused passage on account of trachoma might not be admitted. It was
found that many of them were suffering from an affliction which re-
sembled trachoma sufficiently so that their exclusion had not been un-
natural but that it was nevertheless unjustifiable and these individuals
were authorized to proceed with their journey.
Furthermore it was learned that in the past American consuls at Amoy
had been in the habit of appointing so-called consular surgeons. Definite
salaries were in some cases paid to these surgeons by the consul who him-
self then collected fees for medical examination from each alien who
desired to go to the Philippine Islands or other American territory, the
aggregate amount thus collected being large. This system is unques-
tionably open to serve criticism, as is that at present in vogue of having
the examinations made by private physicians who charge fees therefor
and who therefore have a direct pecuniary interest in retaining as long
as possible, and in reexamining as many times as possible, would-be
immigrants. An effort, therefore, has been made to secure the detail at
Amoy of a regular officer of the United States Public Health and Marine-
Hospital Service to make these examinations. As Amoy is one of the
great bubonic plague centers of the world there exist further and cogent
reasons for such a detail and it is earnestly hoped that it may be brought
about during the present year.
Detailed statistical and other information relative to the work of the
Quarantine Service will be found in the report of the chief quarantine
BUREAU OF FORESTRY.
During the year legislation has been enacted authorizing the free
use of timber, stone and earth from public forest lands by any railway
company to which a franchise might be given to build a line to Baguio,
Benguet; providing for the establishing by the Director of Forestry,
with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, of communal forests
for municipalities; authorizing the continued use of the English system
of measures in the purchase and sale of manufactured lumber in view
of the fact that most of the sawing machinery imported is graduated
in this system; and providing for the free cutting and use of certain
first-group woods in buildings of strong material.
VISIT OF A REPRESENTATIVE FROM THE FOREST DEPARTMENT OF JAVA.
As a result of a brief visit of Dr. Treub, who is in charge of the agricul-
tural, botanical and forests departments* of the Javan Government at
Buitenzorg, Mr. Paul Kerbert, a forester of the Javan Government, was
sent to the Philippines to study the methods used in the conservation
and development of our forest resources and more especially to investigate
steam logging. Every possible facility for observation was extended
to Mr. Kerbert and after his return he recommended to the Javan Gov-
ernment that it purchase two American logging donkey engines and em-
ploy an American expert logger to direct their operation in the teak
forests of Java; also that the Javan Government endeavor to secure
four trained American foresters from the Philippine Bureau of Forestry
to carry on explorations of the forests of Sumatra.
FORESTRY INVESTIGATIONS IN THE AGUSAN RIVER VALLEY.
Investigations by Forester W. I. Hutchinson of a tract of 2,000 square
miles bounded by the Agusan, Tagabaca and Gibong Kivers and the
eastern mountain chain of Mindanao show that all but about ' 27,000
acres are timberland and that more than 80 per cent, of the timber is
soft wood such as is now being logged profitably in northern Negros.
EMPLOYMENT OF IGOROT FIRE WARDENS IN NORTHERN LUZON.
Quite satisfactory results in checking the disastrous grass fires which
sweep over the mountains of northern Luzon during the dry season
have been obtained through the appointment of Igorot fire wardens,
who take great pride in their office and who have proved to be energetic,
faithful and efficient employees.
INSPECTION OF PUBLIC LANDS.
The Bureau has inspected 2,583 parcels of public land to determine
their character and all but 52 have been certified as more valuable
for agricultural than for forestry purposes.
INSTRUCTION OF FILIPINO EMPLOYEES.
A systematic effort is being made to increase the efficiency of the Fili-
pinos employed in the field by the Bureau of Forestry. This force was
convened at Manila at the close of the annual foresters' conference and
a practical school of instruction was organized for its benefit on the
Lamao forest reserve. At its close an examination will be held and all
employees will receive definite ratings.
The work of mapping the forest areas in the Philippines has been
vigorously pushed and has been completed for very large areas in central
and southern Luzon, Mindoro and the Zamboanga Peninsula of Min-
danao. Isolated areas in other parts of the Islands have been mapped.
A detailed map has been made of the tract of the Port Banga Lumber
Company, in Zamboanga, which covers an area of one hundred and thirty-
seven square miles.
MUSEUM AND HERBARIUM COLLECTIONS.
Both the total number of wood samples and the number of forest
species represented have been greatly increased. There are now 2,285
wood samples representing 486 species. This collection and the botanical
specimens and microscopic sections of wood prepared by the Bureau of
Science render the proper identification of a large number of arboreal
species easy and certain. The Bureau of Forestry has added steadily to
the herbarium specimens of the Bureau of Science turning over more
than 4,089 numbers during the year.
Some 2,283 species have now been identified. The whole of America
north of Mexico contains only about 640 tree species. On 17 square
miles of the Lanao forest reserve alone 548 species have been found.
DURABILITY TESTS OF WOODS.
One hundred and fifty-six durability tests, conducted with a special
view to ascertaining the durability of different woods in resisting the
attacks of fungi and white ants, are now in progress.
The museum specimens of the Bureau of Forestry number 7,572,
illustrating floor, shelf, hand and plank specimens of wood; also resins,
gums, wood oils, gutta-percha, rubber, tanbark, dyebark and other barks,
bamboos, bejucos (rattans), fruits and seeds of trees as well as articles
manufactured from forest products. The limited amount of space
available makes the proper exhibition of these valuable specimens im-
possible and provision is now being made for displaying them in the
Anloague building, where a museum is being established under the cus-
tody of the Bureau of Science.
The timber-testing laboratory has been without a manager during the
year and its work has therefore temporarily come to a standstill.
INVESTIGATIONS IN MINDORO.
In connection with its fieldwork in Mindoro the Bureau of Forestry
has been able to secure data showing the possibility of building a road
through the rich, undeveloped agricultural region lying between the
foothills of the Mount Halcon Kange and the east coast. The proposed
road would open hundreds of thousands of acres of the richest agricultural
land in the Philippines and it is hoped that work upon it may be begun
in the near future.
Further details of the work of the Forestry Bureau together with
statistics as to business done in lumber and other forest products during
the year will be found in the report of its Director.
THE BUREAU OF SCIENCE.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE BUREAU OF SCIENCE AND THE
PHILIPPINE MEDICAL SCHOOL.
The close relationship which exists between the Bureau of Science
and the Philippine Medical School is likely to render necessary, in
the near future, some readjustment between the officers and employees
in the two institutions. The Director of the Bureau, Doctors Strong,
Musgrave, Marshall, Garrison, Buediger and Messrs. Bosario and Clegg
have all been active members of the faculty of the Medical School and
have devoted much time to its interests. The results have been very
satisfactory so far as regards the School, but the regular work of the
Bureau has necessarily suffered to some extent.
With the completion of the new general hospital buildings and the
opening of the doors of that institution it will, of course, be necessary
to organize a hospital staff, as no single physician and surgeon, however
competent and tireless, could properl}' attend to the work of such an
Many members of the faculty of the Medical School will require the
laboratory facilities of the Bureau of Science for themselves and for
their advanced students, while officers and employees of the Bureau of
Science will doubtless continue to give instruction in the Medical
School. The central scientific library now connected with the Bureau
of Science will necessarily serve as a medical library for the school.
The biological staff of the Bureau of Science will need to have access
to the pathological material from the hospital while members of the
clinical staff of the hospital will wish to pursue laboratory investigations.
The faculty of the Medical School will desire to take their students into
the hospital in order to give them practical instruction. It is evident
therefore that the relationship beween the three institutions will neces-
sarily be of the most intimate character, and that each will profit by the
close proximity of both the others. However, the satisfactory division
of duties between the members of their staffs is a matter which will
require careful consideration.
THE SECURING OF TRAINED MEN FOR THE BUREAU OF SCIENCE.
The securing of trained men for the work of this Bureau continues
to offer some difficulties, although these have materially diminished
since the force was reorganized and most of the positions now author-
ized are filled. It would, however, be far more satisfactory if we were
able to secure competent employees who are residents of this country
instead of obtaining them from the United States and Europe. It is
believed that with the return of Government students from the United
States this will become possible to some extent and that a number of
positions should be provided which may be filled by returning Filipino
students with good biological or chemical training while they are gain-
ing necessary practical experience and increased knowledge under the
direction of the highly trained men now employed, whose places they
would ultimately take as the present incumbents were promoted or
left the service. While this policy would involve some additional
expense at the outset there can be no doubt that it would ultimately
result in economy.
Promotions would probably be fairly rapid in the case of those who
showed themselves worthy of it, for the reason that the highest salaries
paid by the Bureau of Science are materially less than many of those paid
to well trained men in the United States and Europe. We have learned
to our sorrow that many of our best men are ultimately called to positions
which are financially more profitable than any we can offer them. Our
ability to retain them as long as we do finds its explanation in the very
exceptional opportunities for original scientific investigation which the
service in the Bureau of Science affords.
THE CEMENT-TESTING LABORATORY.
There has been a remarkable increase in the demands for cement tests.
During the previous fiscal year only about twenty-four samples were
tested but during the last seven months of the present year more than
twelve hundred tests were made. This necessitated the providing of
increased facilities. One of the outbuildings of the Bureau has been
converted into a well-equipped cement testing laboratory to which the city
of Manila and the Bureau of Public Works are now sending all of their
samples. The city has contributed its testing apparatus. The Insular
Purchasing Agent's office and the port works of Manila are the only offices
of the Civil Government which do not now send their cement work to this
laboratory and the undersigned is of the opinion that in the interest of
economy, efficiency and uniformity of tests they should be required to
To the claim of these offices that their work is now done by employees
"when not doing anything else" and consequently costs them practically
nothing, it may be replied that these employees might be doing something
else if not engaged in making cement tests and that the tests do actually
cost the value of the time of the employees making them, whatever that
may be, plus depreciation on the plant employed and interest on the
money invested in it. It is now the well-established policy of this
Government to centralize its work so far as practicable. Were all cement
tests made by the Bureau of Science the cost for from 200 to 325
samples per month would be 1*3.50 each while that for 326 to 500
samples per month would be f*2 each, the price per sample increasing
rapidly if less than 200 samples were tested, as the highest paid employee
would need to be retained and only laborers could be dispensed with.
THE PRODUCER-GAS PLANT.
The producer-gas plant, for which appropriation was made, has not
been installed owing to the illness of Mr. Grilkerson, the engineer of
the Bureau of Science, who was in charge of the perfection of plans
As it is a well-known fact that the highest efficiency may be obtained
from gas by exploding it in the cylinders of a properly constructed
gas engine rather than by using it as a combustible to produce steam,
and as the completion of the new hospital building and the new Medical
School building, which will both doubtless depend for light and power
on the Bureau of Science plant, will involve the installation of an
additional engine, it will be economical to install a gas engine in
connection with the producer-gas plant.
THE PHILIPPINE MUSEUM.
Very valuable and interesting ethnological collections have been in-
stalled and are now on exhibition in the second story of the Anloague
building. The Bureau of Public Works has vacated the first floor of
this building and funds have been made available to prepare it for
museum purposes. A part of the additional space thus gained will
be used for the exhibition of the museum specimens of the Bureau of
Forestry and the Bureau of Agriculture illustrating the forest and
agricultural resources of the Islands.
The present building is not really suitable for museum purposes and
its location is unfortunate. It is believed that when a small part of
the exhibits now available are installed and the Legislature realizes
what a magnificent showing might be made were adequate space and
a sufficient number of museum cases available, there will be little
difficulty in securing appropriation for a suitable and properly located
museum building with special facilities for commercial exhibits. An
institution might then readily be established which would be of the
greatest educational value and would strongly stimulate the conversion
of the enormous natural resources of these Islands into hard cash.
The Anloague building would be very useful for private commercial
purposes and the money which might be derived from its sale would
doubtless go far toward meeting the cost of a new and suitable structure
to which the present museum cases could be transferred.
GENERAL SCIENTIFIC LIBRARY.
The development of the library has continued to be most satisfactory
and the use made of its facilities increases steadily. While its shelves
are not encumbered with the obsolete or otherwise useless works so
commonly found in similar institutions, it is believed that it is the
best working scientific library in the Far East and that it compares
favorably with many good scientific libraries in Europe and America.
It is added to as occasion demands and its growth is steady and healthful.
Space for additional shelving will be required by 1910. This can be
furnished by vacating two rooms adjoining the present stock rooms if
the much needed new wing is added to the laboratory building before
THE PHILIPPINE JOURNAL OF SCIENCE,
The plan of issuing this Journal in three sections dedicated to medical
science, botany and general science, respectively, has been most successful
in encouraging subscriptions and exchanges. The annual cash value of
the subscriptions and exchanges is now approximately 1^6,375.
THE NECESSITY FOR A NEW WING TO THE LABORATORY BUILDING.
The need for increased space, which was considerable at the end of
the fiscal year 1906, and great at the end of the year 1907, has now
become imperative. The building as originally constructed was, and so
far as present indications go is likely to continue to be, fully adequate
for the needs of the Bureau of Laboratories as then organized, but the
further centralization of the scientific work of the Government by the
establishing of the Bureau of Science created new and unforseen condi-
tions. On this subject the Director of the Bureau says :
"As each year passes and the work of the Bureau continues to expand, the need
of such additional space becomes more and more evident. The library will soon
have all of its shelf space filled; the herbarium has now completely occupied one
room and some cases have been placed in another; the entomological collection is
practically at its limit; the collection of fishes takes a large part of the room
devoted to pathologic exhibits, and when identified specimens return from the
United States there will be no place to put them; the division of mines has not
been able properly to extend its work because of lack of floor space and when Dr.
W. D. Smith, now on leave in Europe, returns with his collection of identified
paleontologic material we shall be hard put properly to accommodate it. Further
expansion of the chemical laboratory is also practically impossible without vacating
some of the laboratory rooms used for other purposes. These collections are now
so valuable and of such fundamental importance for scientific work in the Islands
and also for the development of the Philippine University that I hope the appro-
priation for the construction of a suitable wing will not be delayed beyond the next
session of the legislature. It would be well, at the same time, to consider the
advisability of building the structure necessary for the Philippine Museum in
connection with this wing."
It is earnestly hoped that at its coming session the Legislature will
see its way clear to meet this need.
THE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY.
Dr. Eichard P. Strong, the director of the biological laboratory, while
absent on vacation leave visited the most important scientific institutions
in Milan, Berne, Paris, Munich, Leipzig, Vienna, Dresden, Berlin,
Hamburg, London, Liverpool, Oxford, Cambridge, New York, Boston,
Baltimore and Philadelphia. He attended the Fourteenth International
Congress of Hygiene in Berlin in September, and reported upon the
subject of protective inoculation against plague. He also attended the
Annual Natur-Forscher Yersammlung in December. Dr. Strong paid
particular attention to the work of the several foreign schools of tropical
medicine. It would be well if all officers and employees could spend
their vacation periods with such profit to the Government and to
The general autopsy work heretofore performed by the Biological
Laboratory has now been transferred to the Philippine Medical School,
but the laboratory still makes the autopsies and undertakes the diagnoses
of cases of suspected infectious disease.
Employees of the laboratory have made nine trips through the provinces
for the bacteriologic diagnosis of leprosy. Although 1,875 examinations
were made, only 1,571 gave positive bacteriological evidence of the
presence of the disease, the value of these examinations being thus
Very numerous bacteriological examinations of water have been neces-
sary, the Bureau of Public Works sending many samples from artesian
wells. Examinations for the Bureau of Health included not only water
from sewers and estuaries but numerous mineral and aerated waters
PUBLICATIONS AND INVESTIGATIONS.
The usual routine examinations have been made and the following
publications have been completed as a result of investigations recently
"Studies in Plague Immunity," by Dr. Richard P. Strong. (Journal of Science,
Vol. II, No. 3— B.)
"The Recent Trend of Immunity Research," by Dr. Harry T. Marshall. (Journal
of Science, Vol. II, No. 4— B.)
"Infant Feeding and its Influence upon Infant Mortality in the Philippine Is-
lands," by Drs. W. E. Musgrave and George F. Richmond. (Journal of Science,
Vol. II, No. 4— B.)
"Gangosa in the Philippine Islands," by Drs. W. E. Musgrave and Harry T.
Marshall. (Journal of Science, Vol. II, No. 4 — B.)
"The Investigations Carried on by the Biological Laboratory in Relation to the
Suppression of the Recent Cholera Outbreak in Manila," by Dr. Richard P. Strong.
(Journal of Science, Vol. II, No. 5 — B.)
"A Histologic Study," by Dr. Harry T. Marshall. (Journal of Science, Vol. II,
No. 5— B.)
"The Etiology of Mycetoma," by Dr. W. E. Musgrave and M. T. CI egg. (Journal
of Science, Vol. II, No. 6— B.)
"A Series of Cases of Tropical Infantile Dysentery With a Hitherto Undescribed
Bacillus as the Causative Factor," by Dr. Fred B. Bowman. (Journal of Science,
Vol. Ill, No. 1— B.)
"An Investigation of the Quantitative Relationships Between Agglutinin, Ag-
glutinoid, and Agglutinable Substance," by Dr. Y. K. Ohno. (Journal of Science,
Vol. Ill, No. 1— B.)
"Peculiar Cases of Traumatism of Internal Organs, Some Due to Tropical Condi-
tions and Practices," by Dr. Maximilian Herzog. (Journal of Science, Vol. Ill,
No. 1— B.)
"The Influence of Symbiosis Upon the Pathogenicity of Microorganisms," by Dr.
W. E. Musgrave. (Journal of Science, Vol. Ill, No. 2 — B.)
"Studies of Cholera," by Dr. Harry T. Marshall. (Journal of Science, Vol. Ill,
No. 2— B.)
"A Biological Study of the Water Supply of the Philippine Islands, with a
Description of a New Pathogenic Organism," by Dr. Ralph T. Edwards. (Journal
of Science, Vol. Ill, No. 2— B.)
"Filtration Experiments with the Virus of Cattle Plague," by Dr. E. H. Ruediger.
(Journal of Science, Vol. Ill, No. 2— B.)
In addition to the manufacture upon a large scale of anti-rinderpest
serum and vaccine virus, cholera prophylactic, plague prophylactic, Gono-
coccus vaccine, Staphylococcus aureus vaccine, Staphylococcus albus vac-
cine and Staphylococcus citreus vaccine were prepared in moderate
quantities, while anti-diphtheritic serum, anti-tetanic serum, anti-cholera
serum, anti-typhoid serum, anti-plague serum, and anti-dysenteric serum
were made in amounts sufficient to supply the demand. Anthrax vaccine,
tuberculin, both human and bovine, and mallein were also prepared.
Typhoid reagent, paratyphoid reagent and cholera reagent (killed cul-
tures) for agglutination, were continually kept on hand. Agglutinating
and bacteriolytic serums in liquid and dried form for the purpose of the
diagnosis of infectious diseases, normal horse serum, normal ox serum,
and normal carabao serum have also been added to the list of preparations
of the laboratory.
The search for the organism or substance causing rinderpest, carried
on by Dr. Euediger, has not been successful, but he has shown that the
infectious material, whatever it may be, which is present in the blood
of sick animals, will not pass through any of the ordinary Berkefeld filters,
while that from the peritoneal washings obtained with 0.25 per cent,
potassium citrate solution passes through all the Berkefeld filters, but
does not pass through the Chamberland filters. These peritoneal washings
are highly virulent and can be advantageously used, in producing the
required immunization in serum animals, for the purposes for which
virulent blood has heretofore been employed. In fact by their use the
period of immunization of serum animals may be greatly reduced and
the cost of feeding them while they are still useless correspondingly
THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION.
Mr. Banks has continued his work on Philippine mosquitoes with
special reference to their importance as agents for the transmission of
malaria and has shown that at least one species of the genus Myzomyia
must be placed under the ban with Anopheles. He was successful in
finding at Cervantes the source of malarial infection which has so long
Numerous pleas for assistance when crops have been attacked by
insects have been received. In nearly every case an entomologist was
sent to study the damage and to provide means for its prevention if
The bringing of bumblebees from the United States, in the hope that
they might thrive in Benguet Province and fertilize red clover which
grows luxuriantly there but does not form seed, was attended with much
difficulty as it was necessary to ship the bees in cold storage. A limited
number of bees were finally brought over alive and were liberated in
the Trinidad Valley where they were seen from time to time up to the
end of the first month of the rainy season. Whether they have survived
the torrential rains of August remains to be determined.
Interesting and important experiments have been carried on by Mr.
Schultze in hybridizing the Ceylon silkworms, which have been success-
fully introduced here, with those from Japan which do not flourish in the
Philippines. It was hoped that a hybrid form might ultimately be
developed which would deposit its eggs at frequent intervals, as does the
Ceylon variety, while producing silk more closely resembling that of
the Japan worms.
The hybrids produced much better cocoons than did the Ceylon variety,
but only about one-tenth of their eggs hatched as promptly as do those
of individuals from Ceylon. It is possible that the continued rearing
of these hybrids accompanied by rigid selection will ultimately produce
the desired result.
The following investigations have been completed during the year:
"Experiments in Malarial Transmission by Means of Myzomyia ludlowii
Theob.;" by Charles S. Banks;
"New and Little Known Lepidoptera of the Philippine Islands/' by W.
"Life Histories of Certain Coleoptera," by W. Schultze;
"A Mosquito Which Breeds in Salt and Fresh Water," by Charles S. Banks ;
"Biology of Philippine Culicidw" by Charles S. Banks;
"Life Histories of Some Philippine Cassididce," by W. Schultze.
THE BOTANICAL SECTION.
The work of identifying botanical material has been greatly facili-
tated by the trip of Mr. E. D. Merrill, who spent two months at Wash-
ington working over the Philippine material in the United States
National Herbarium, and who later visited the New York Botanical
Garden, the Gray Herbarium at Cambridge, Mass., the Kew Herbarium
and the British Museum. He also stopped at Ley den, Geneva and Flo-
rence and worked for two weeks in Berlin.
An economic botanist has been added to the force of the section and
the economic botanical resources of the Philippine Islands will now be
systematically investigated for the first time. Some economic work has
already been done. Tanbarks, rubber-producing vines, perfume-produc-
ing plants, gums, resins and medicinal plants have been collected in bulk.
The chemists of the Bureau have already made important investigations
upon some of this material.
The economic botanist has studied and reported upon the sugar-cane
smut which appeared in La Laguna Province and has recommended
measures for holding it in check which have given excellent results.
Dr. Copeland has continued his work on the bud-rot of the cocoanut
which has assumed serious proportions in the Provinces of La Laguna
Fifteen thousand one hundred and thirty-two additions to the her-
barium have been made during the year through collections of employees
of the Bureau of Science and of the Bureau of Forestry, miscellaneous
Philippine collections and foreign material received in exchange. The
foreign exchanges are of exceptional value. The total number of
mounted specimens now in the herbarium is 61,045, of which 30,163
are Philippine. A large amount of material is now in the hands of
foreign specialists who have undertaken its identification. At present
the chief obstacle in the way of pushing botanical work is lack of space
in which to store and study collections when made.
THE COLLECTION OF NATURAL-HISTORY SPECIMENS.
The work of gathering material for the future natural-history museum
has been steadily and successfully pushed.
During the past eight years the undersigned has received frequent in-
quiries as to the existence of any book which might be used in identifying
Philippine birds and has been forced to reply that no such book existed,
the literature on the subject being scattered through scores of volumes,
special monographs and papers.
The great educational value of nature study in primary and secondary
schools is now universally recognized but such study has been rendered
difficult in the Philippines on account of the entire lack of books suitable
for use in identifying even our commoner plants or animals.
In view of these facts the undersigned directed Mr. Eichard C.
McGregor to prepare a series of descriptions of all known Philippine
birds, supplemented by a complete series of keys to be used in identifica-
tion. This work will be published in two sections.
The first is completed and the second is well under way. It is
believed that it will have a considerable sale not only on account of its
value for use in the schools, but because it will be desired by many per-
sons at isolated posts in the Islands who will be glad to vary the monotony
of their lives by studying the birds about them. Heretofore the study
of Philippine birds has been possible only for specialists. Hereafter it
can be undertaken by any one able to read the English language.
THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY.
Several members of the staff of the chemical laboratory have been
kept engaged on problems of economic importance. Dr. Eichmond has
begun a study of the so-called Manila copal or almaciga, extensively used
in the manufacture of varnish, and his work will materially aid in
clearing up the confusion at present surrounding the identity of the
gums thus designated and of dammar.
Important work has been done on Philippine oils and in determining
the food values of certain oil cakes and seeds. Dr. Bacon has carried
out investigations on Manila "elemi" and ylang-ylang, vetiver, lemon
grass and other plants producing valuable essential oils.
The undersigned found the fruit of Pittosporum resiniferum, com-
monly known as the "petroleum nut," in the mountains of Benguet, and
sent a quantity of it to Manila. Upon distillation, 3 per cent of heptane,
a very valuable oil for cleaning delicate fabrics, and 7 per cent of pinene,
an oil employed in the manufacture of artificial camphor, were obtained.
Boneol, a near relative of camphor, has been isolated from Blumea
balsamica, a common Philippine plant. A fragrant oil has been distilled
from the leaves of Lantanna, Other tropical perfume yielding plants
are under investigation.
The Philippine Islands are already famous for their ylang-ylang oil,
which has never been successfully produced in any other country. Other
equally valuable oils are obtainable from plants and trees native to the
Islands and they should eventually form an important article of com-
Numerous areas along the coasts of many of the Islands are covered
with mangrove trees. An investigation of the barks from these trees
shows a variation in the content of tannin from 17 per cent for Mindoro
barks to 24 per cent, for those from Mindanao.
The growing public appreciation of the work of the chemical laboratory
is demonstrated by the constantly increasing number of outside requests
for analyses of gums, resins, soils, waters, fertilizers, foodstuffs, oils, rocks
and minerals. These applications have not been confined to the Phil-
ippines but have come from neighboring countries as well.
Reference has already been made to the large number of cement tests.
Numerous analyses of drugs suspected of containing opium have been
made in connection with the administration of the opium law. Two
hundred and seventy analyses of carabao milk have been made for the
Bureau of Health. There have been sufficient water analyses to occupy
nearly all of the time of one chemist during the year.
THE DIVISION OF WEIGHTS, MEASURES AND MINERAL ANALYSES.
This division has standardized all provincial weights and measures in
accordance with the provisions of Act No. 1519 known as "The Weights
and Measures Act." A large amount of routine work, for which payment
has been received, has also been done. Six hundred and twenty-one gold
assays have been made as against 233 for the previous year. Assays for
gold, silver or platinum during 1908 numbered 772, copper 245, lead 10,
zinc 3, iron, manganese, nickel, tellurium, etc., 12. A large amount of
work has been done on coals. In fact most of the research work of this
division has been on the local coals, cement rocks and clays.
The following publications have been issued by the chemical laboratory :
"Preliminary Paper on Utilization of Some Philippine Oil-bearing Seeds,"
by George F. Richmond and Mariano Vivencio del Rosario. (Journal of Science,
Vol. II, No. 6— A.)
"Philippine Terpenes and Essential Oils, Nos. 1 and 11, No. 11 on Ylang-
Ylang Oil," by Raymond F. Bacon. (Journal of Science, Vol. Ill, No. 2 — A.)
"The Composition of Horlick's Malted Milk," by George F. Richmond and
Dr. W. E. Musgrave. (Journal of Science, Vol. Ill, No. 2 — A.)
"The Occurrence, Composition and Radioactivity of the Clays from Luzon,
Philippine Islands," by Alvin J. Cox. (Journal of Science, Vol. II, No. 6 — A.)
"Starch Production in the Philippine Islands," by Raymond F. Bacon. (Jour-
nal of Science, Vol. Ill, No. 2— A.)
"The Relationship Between the External Appearance and the Ash Content
of Philippine Coal," by Alvin J. Cox. (Journal of Science, Vol. Ill, No. 2 — A.)
"Philippine Arrow Poisons," by Raymond F. Bacon. (Journal of Science,
Vol. Ill, No. 1— A.)
"The Purification of Coconut Oil," by George F. Richmond. (Journal of
Science, Vol. Ill, No. 1— A.)
THE LABORATORY FOR FOOD AND DRUGS INSPECTION.
The results of the work of this division have already been referred to
in reporting on the work of the Bureau of Health. They will be found
set forth in detail in the report of the Director of the Bureau of
DIVISION OF MINES.
The force of this division has suffered serious loss by the death of
Senor Jugo Navarro, who had been continuously in Government service
as a draftsman for about twenty-eight years, having served successively
in the Spanish Inspeccion General de Minas, in the former Mining
Bureau, and in the present division of mines; and in the death of Mr,
Harry M. Ickis, who was treacherously murdered by wild men in the
mountains of northern Mindanao. In spite of these losses and of the
fact that it has gone through the year shorthanded the division has
completed a geological reconnoissance of the Batanes Islands, a trian-
gulation survey of the Arroroy mining district in Masbate, a topographic
survey and geological reconnoissance of the same district, an under-
ground survey of the old Spanish mine known as "The Big Copper"
in Lepanto, and a topographic survey and geological reconnoisance of
parts of Mindanao.
The following publications have been issued:
"A Description of the Geology and Mining Operations, in the Camarines
Gold Fields," by H. M. Ickis. (Journal of Science, Vol. IV, No. 2, and Far
"Notes on the Geology and Geography of the Baguio Mineral District,"
with map, by A. J. Eveland. (Journal of Science, Vol. II, No. 4 — A.)
"The Petrography of Some Rocks from Benguet Province," by Warren D.
Smith. (Journal of Science, Vol. II, No. 4 — A.)
"The Gold Placers of Nueva Ecija," by Henry G. Ferguson. (Journal of
Science, Vol. IV, No. 5, and Far Eastern Review.)
"The Sulphur Deposits of Leyte," by Maurice Goodman. (Journal of Science,
Vol. IV, No. 4, and Far Eastern Review.)
"The Sulphur Deposits of Camiguin Island," by Henry G. Ferguson. (Jour-
nal of Science, Vol. IV, No. 5, and Far Eastern Review.)
"A Geological Reconnoissance of the Batanes Islands," by Henry G. Ferguson.
(Journal of Science, Vol. IV, No. 5, and Far Eastern Review.)
"The Stone Quarry of Mariveles," by H. M. Ickis. (Journal of Science, Vol.
IV, No. 7, and Far Eastern Review.)
"Notes on the Manila Lime Supply," by Maurice Goodman. (Journal of
Science, Vol. IV, No. 7, and Far Eastern Review.)
"Contributions to the Physiography of the Philippine Islands: 'Batanes
Islands/" by Henry G. Ferguson. (Journal of Science, Vol. Ill, No. 1 — A.)
"The Geology of the Compostella-Danao Coal Fields," with map, by Warren
D. Smith. (Journal of Science, Vol. II, No. 6 — A.)
"Note on the Occurrence of Rhyolite in Cebu," by Henry G. Ferguson. (Jour-
nal of Science, Vol. II, No. 6 — A.)
There has also been issued the first Annual Bulletin of the Mineral
Eesources of the Philippine Islands.
In view of the increasing importance of the mining industry it is
believed that facilities for making practical working tests upon from
three to five ton samples of ore should be furnished. At the present
time it is necessary for prospectors to send such samples to the United
States or to foreign countries. This involves a heavy expense and much
loss of time. To this end there should be provided a small stamp mill
and a cyanide plant.
In the opinion of the undersigned there should be added a smelting
and refining plant large enough to handle the gold produced in the
Islands. At present miners are obliged to turn their crude bullion
over to the banks which advance a part of its value and ship it to Pacific
coast smelters or to the mint at San Francisco. The miners must wait
for the balance of their money until returns are received from the
smelter or the mint. They then receive the full value of their gold less
the following charges: Interest at 8 per cent on the amount already
advanced to them; smelter or mint charges; express; insurance and a
charge for the services of the bank.
These charges amount to more than 2 per cent of the total value of
the bullion. It is believed that the Bureau of Science could do the
refining at a small profit on a 1 per cent basis, the Government might
then buy the gold and the miners would get their returns immediately
which would be a material advantage to many of them. An arrange-
ment might be made by which the Government could use gold bars in
maintaining its gold reserve ; or it could sell its gold in China and India
where the pure metal for use in the arts and trades often brings a
premium. Any surplus remaining could be shipped to the United
States mint. In the opinion of the undersigned it would be well worth
while to extend this encouragement to the local mining industry.
THE DIVISION OF ETHNOLOGY.
Dr. M. L. Miller, the chief of this division, was absent on leave
during a part of the year and the time of its remaining member has
been largely occupied by museum work. Since Dr. Miller's return he
has done a large amount of editorial work and has also performed
inspection work in jSTueva Vizcaya and Lepanto-Bontoc at the direction
of the undersigned. Very valuable ethnological collections have been
secured during the year by gift and by purchase.
THE DIVISION OF FISH AND FISHERIES.
The work on Philippine fish and fisheries outlined at the beginning of
the fiscal year has been steadily prosecuted. The Director of the Bureau
of Science summarizes the ends in view as follows :
"1. To secure as complete a collection as possible of all Philippine fishes, cata-
loguing the specimens under their native, English and scientific names.
"2. To study the foods, life histories, distribution and migrations of useful
"3. To discover the nature of the feeding and spawning grounds of the food fishes,
to ascertain the period of spawning, the characteristics of the ova, the time required
for, and the conditions favorable to, hatching.
"4. To see what methods and apparatus are used by the natives in the catching,
curing and drying of fishes and to suggest such improvements as we know to be
"5. To determine what protection can be given to young fish during the early
stages of their growth.
"6. To find places where fishes could be introduced profitably, or where pond
culture could be inaugurated, or practical fish-cultural methods carried out.
"7. To ascertain what are the enemies and the causes of the disappearance of
"8. To list the price paid in each locality for fresh and salted fish, the quantity
secured and the amount exported and imported.
"9. To obtain figures as to the quantity and value of all other fishery products.
"10. To make an investigation of the pearl, sponge and coral fisheries."
This work has been carried on by Mr. Alvin Seale aided by three
Filipino assistants, one of whom is a skilled artist capable of accurately
reproducing the. colors of living fishes which fade so quickly after death.
Some 8,000 specimens of fish have been collected representing numerous
new species and many, others not heretofore recorded from the Philip-
An idea of the abundance and variety of Philippine fishes may be
gained from the fact that 212 different species were taken in the Gulf of
Davao in a single day. Mr. Seale has devoted a considerable amount
of time to the study of pearl fisheries with important practical results.
He has also located sponge beds of commercial value and has discovered
precious coral at several points.
He has combined in a happy manner valuable scientific work and
practical commercial work. He has been able to give many valuable
suggestions in connection with legislation for the protection of pearl
and sponge fisheries and has a large amount of data of a practical
nature just ready for publication. It is greatly to be regretted that
at this time ill health should compel his return to the United States.
It is hoped, however, that he will be able to continue his work while there.
During the year 1907 the Philippines imported fish and other sea
products to the value of 1*498,762, while exports of pearl shell were
valued at 1*111,124, tortoise shell, 1*33,082, fish, 1*97,918, and trepang,
etc., 1*64,762, giving a total of but 1*306,886. Fishery imports thus
exceeded exports by 1*191,876, and that too when our seas swarm with
fish, and especially with sardines which are one of our principal imports.
The importance of developing our fisheries would seem too evident to
Only this brief outline of the work of the Bureau of Science can be
given here. A full account of it will be found in the report of its
THE WORK OF THE STEAMER "ALBATROSS."
In his last annual report the undersigned outlined the arrangement
which had been made for bringing the steamer Albatross to these Islands
and expressed a confident hope that there would follow important practical
results which would greatly stimulate the development of Philippine
With regret he is now obliged to state that these hopes have not been
realized. For some reason the Albatross failed to bring the promised
appliances for commercial fishing such as the purse seine. It was
understood at the outset that the members of her staff would furnish
preliminary statements of important results for the benefit of the Insular
Government, as well as for that of the public, which was to be reached,
through the medium of the Philippine Journal of Science and of the
local press, but no such statements have been furnished unless two notes
on the occurrence of Peridinium in Manila Bay are to be so considered.
No response has been received to a request for information likely to
be of value in framing legislation for the protection of pearl and sponge
fisheries, made by the undersigned, while another request for information
relative to commercial fisheries was forwarded to Washington for reply
and no reply has been made.
After some preliminary difficulties had been overcome, Mr. Alvin
Seale and two of his Filipino assistants were received on board the
Albatross, but found that they could not work there to good advantage
and were soon recalled at their own request.
So far as the undersigned is informed the work of the staff of the
Albatross has thus far consisted chiefly in the making of very extensive
and scientifically very valuable marine zoological collections, but has not
resulted in any discoveries of commercial importance.
The arrangement under which the Insular Government furnished
coal for this vessel terminated on June 30. Fortunately the amount of
coal consumed was far less than had been anticipated and provided for.
When the material collected is finally disposed of the Insular Govern-
ment will receive very valuable collections which should fully com-
pensate it for the expense which it has incurred. Meanwhile it must
be confessed that the practical results obtained and communicated to
the Insular Government have thus far been nil.
BUREAU OF LANDS.
This is the one Bureau of the Department of the Interior which has
had any material increase in its force during the year, the number of
employees having been 637 on June 30, 1907, and 965 on June 30, 1908.
This increase was the result of putting on additional survey parties in
order to bring about the early completion of the work of surveying the
friar estates, and of employing additional laborers for work in operating
the irrigation systems on these estates.
The scope of the work of the Bureau of Lands has been materially
increased during the year by the enactment of Act No. 1854, which
provides that the administration of Government irrigation systems shall
be controlled by the Bureau of Lands, and of Act No. 1875, which gives
to the Bureau of Lands the general supervision of all surveys made
for the Court of Land Eegistration.
In actual practice, however, the work of the Bureau has not as yet
been materially augmented as no new Government irrigation systems
have been completed and the authority to supervise all surveys for the
Court of Land Eegistration was not conferred until July 1, 1908.
TRANSFER OF THE OFFICE TO BAGUIO.
In order to determine experimentally and beyond reasonable doubt
the practical result of transferring office work to Baguio during the
period of greatest heat, the undersigned ordered the Director of Lands to
proceed to Baguio taking with him such part of his office force as it might
be practicable to transfer under the then existing circumstances. The
Director, Assistant Director, seven American and ten Filipino employees
accordingly proceeded to the summer capital.
An office was established in one of the Government cottages. Some
of the employees lived at the Hotel Pines while others occupied tents
and boarded at a mess conducted by one of them.
Concerning this experiment the Director of Lands says :
"The result of this move * * * proved conclusively to my mind that it
would be advantageous to the Government to transfer as many of its employees to
Baguio during the hot season as possible, for the conservation of health and the
increased efficiency while there and after return to Manila. While no physical
examinations were made of the employees of this Bureau, the weights of individuals,
taken upon arrival and at the date of their departure, showed a gain in each
employee of from 5£ to 15 pounds. No illness was occasioned by the change of
climate and conditions to the employees, and in fact it is believed that all benefited
thereby. * * * As a partial offset to the expenditures of the Bureau during
its sojourn in Baguio, it may be stated that several employees have signified their
intention of foregoing their vacation leave this year on account of their stay in
Baguio, and as the value of the vacation leave of those employees who went to
Baguio exceeds 1*3,000 for the year, it may be assumed that one-half of this will be
saved on account of the Baguio trip, which will also reduce the expense of the
Bureau while in Baguio.
"In conclusion it may be stated that the result of the transfer of the Bureau of
Lands to Baguio has been beneficial beyond expectations, and to my mind the expense
of this experiment has been practically offset by the advantages to the employees
and their increased efficiency to the Government service, and I therefore recommend
that for the coming year this Bureau be authorized to transfer to Baguio as large
a number of employees as accommodations may be provided for, provided that funds
are available to pay the expenses, the rate of which expense per employee will be
reduced materially in comparison with the expense for the past year. * * *
"I believe it possible under the best conditions, to subsist and quarter Americans
in Baguio for 1*75 per month, and Filipino employees for one-third of that amount,
including first-class food and accommodations.
"Looking to the future, it is suggested that the Bureau be authorized to begin
the preparation of plans for a permanent building in Baguio sufficient to accom-
modate the entire Bureau, with quarters for the employees."
It was particularly interesting to the undersigned to note the rapid
improvement in the condition of the Filipino employees during their
stay at this delightful mountain resort. The number of Filipinos first
taken was subsequently augmented, the average for the season being
fourteen and without exception they seemed to profit greatly by the
change. The experiment will be continued this year upon a larger
scale. In the opinion of the undersigned there is no room for doubt
that the transfer during six to nine months of employees of those
offices of the Insular Government, the nature of whose work is such that
it can be done as well at Baguio as at Manila, would result in material
economy to the Government on account of the increased energy and
efficiency of the employees.
LAW CLERK NEEDED BY THE BUREAU OF LANDS.
Long since, the Director of Lands urgently requested authorization
for the appointment of a law clerk. The request was denied upon the
promise of the Attorney- General to furnish the Bureau with the services
of a properly qualified attorney when required. Unfortunately the pres-
sure of work in the Attorney- General's office has been so great that it
has been impossible to make such assignment and it has been necessary
to forward each question requiring legal action to the Attorney- General's
office. This has necessarily resulted in much delay and in the occasional
temporary assignment of attorneys not familiar with land cases, while
a number of cases upon which legal advice should have been obtained
have been acted upon in the best judgment of the administrative officers
of the Bureau.
The legal questions arising in connection with the Friar Lands, water
rights, mining claims, public lands and lands which are the property of
the Insular Government are numerous and important enough fully to
occupy the time of a highly qualified attorney and such an attorney
should be at all times available for the work of the Bureau of Lands.
In the report of the Director of Lands will be found a table show-
ing for each estate the area in hectares and the estimated percentage
at present occupied, the percentage surveyed, that sold or leased, the
number of leases, the area covered by said leases, the annual receipts
due under existing contracts, the receipts actually obtained during the
fiscal year of 1908, the annual interest on the purchase price at 4 per
cent., the current expenses for the fiscal year 1908, the deficit or surplus
as the case may be, and the extraordinary non-recurrent expenses of the
fiscal year of 1908. A summary of this table shows the following totals :
Area purchased hectares
Percentage sold or leased
Number of leases
Area leased ,. hectares.
Annual receipts contracted for
Annual interest on purchase price, at 4 per cent
Total current expenses
T-241, 937. 24
P-290, 160. 88
V 280, 915. 74
flO, 298. 14
1*657, 083. 78
In the case of nineteen estates expenses have exceeded receipts, the
total deficit being 1*388,197.99 for the fiscal year 1908 as against
1*430,456. 15 for the fiscal year 1907. On four estates the receipts have
exceeded expenses but the total surplus is only 1*9,712.20. There was
no surplus on any estate during the fiscal year of 1907. The net deficit
for the fiscal year of 1908 is therefore 1*378,485.79, a reduction as com-
pared with the previous fiscal year of 1*51,970.36.
It must be remembered that there were during the year additional
heavy non-recurrent expenses incident to the completion of the surveys
on all of the estates and important permanent repairs to irrigation systems
on two of them. The expenditure for surveys during the year, was
f*239,087.51 as against f*206,489.18 for the fiscal year of 1907, and the
expenses for permanent improvement to irrigation systems amounted to
f*20,949.63 as against f*13,681.96.
At the date of the last annual report nearly all leases were based on
estimated areas. New leases have been issued upon the following plan:
When the actual area of a parcel has been determined upon an estate
which has been classified for sale the annual rental charged is fixed at 5
per cent, of the appraised value of the parcel. When the area of the parcel
concerned has not been definitely determined but the survey of the estate
has been completed and the planimeter area of the parcel has been deter-
mined, the land is leased on this area on a basis of 5 per cent, of the
appraised value, or if the estate has not been classified the same rate per
hectare is charged as before but the area is changed as determined by the
planimeter. In nearly all cases this has resulted in an increase of the
rent for the parcels, as the original areas were almost invariably under-
estimated and the rental paid did not equal 5 per cent, of the appraised
It was at first intended to charge 6 per cent, of the appraised value,
of which 4 per cent, would have gone as an offset against the interest on
the investment, 1 per cent, for administration charges and 1 per cent,
to the sinking fund, but it was found to be so difficult for many of the
tenants to meet their obligations that the total charge was reduced to
5 per cent, which is the least amount that will cover the interest on the
investment and the cost of administering these estates.
The Director of Lands anticipates that during the fiscal year 1909
the rentals contracted for on fifteen of the estates will equal the interest
and expenses. The San Jose and Isabela Estates being practically with-
out tenants can never become self-supporting through rentals unless some
successful system of colonization can be inaugurated. As regards the
other six estates, however, it is hoped that the giving of special attention
to obtaining new tenants, as has already been done sucessfully in the
case of the Muntinlupa Estate, may result soon in making them nearly or
The San Marcos Estate has been disposed of, the Dampol Estate is
being sold and the Matamo Estate has been leased with the probability
of sale. The Binagbag and Orion Estates have been offered for sale and
the Director of Lands anticipates that they will be entirely disposed of
within a short time.
Other estates will be offered for sale as soon as computation of the
areas of the several parcels can be completed, but the volume of this
work is very great. There are more than fifty thousand parcels of land
with an average of eight angles to the parcel and the amount of computa-
tion necessarily involved is enormous. A good idea of the difficulty of
the work involved in surveying these estates may be obtained by glancing
at the plat of the Talisay-Minglanilla Estate which will be found in
the report of the Director of Lands. This estate of 300 hectares is
divided into more than 1,300 parcels of typical irregularity.
The Director of Lands asked for an increase of 1*79,000 in his ap-
propriation in order that this work might be pushed, but the Legislature
declined to allow it. He estimates that if his present computing force
remains available for this work the remaining estates may be offered
for sale as follows :
"During the six months ending December 31, 1908 : Guiguinto, Banilad, Malinta,
Santa Rosa and Muntinlupa.
"During the six months ending June 30, 1909: Isabela, Lolomboy, Binan, Tala,
Naic and San Francisco de Malabon.
"During the six moths ending December 31, 1909: Calamba, Santa Cruz de Mala-
bon and Santa Maria de Pandi.
"During the six months ending June 30, 1910: Imus, Piedad and Talisay-
If, however, it is necessary to use this force for computing in con-
nection with surveys for the Court of Land Eegistration further delay
will invariably result.
AMENDMENTS TO FRIAB LAND ACT.
Certain important amendments to the Friar Land Act have been
made. This act made the provisions of chapter two of the Public Land
Act apply to sales of friar lands. The amount of land which could be
sold to an individual was thus limited to 16 hectares which would in
very many cases have defeated the obvious intention of the Act to allow
tenants to secure their actual holdings, and would have delayed for many
years the sale of large tracts, thus obliging the Government to continue
to pay interest on their purchase price. The provision of the Public
Land Act that surveys should be in regular sub-divisions was entirely
impracticable on occupied friar estates on account of the very irregular
form of actual holdings.
The further requirement for advertising after application for purchase
had been made imposed an entirely needless and unwarranted expense
of from 1*20 to 1*100 on each purchaser and the most liberal arrangement
relative to payment possible was that it should be made in one install-
ment after five years, with interest at 6 per cent.
Under the law as amended there is no limit as to the amount of land
which may be purchased; necessity for advertisement is done away with
and the land sold at its cost to the Government up to the date of sale,
deferred payments bearing interest at the rate of 4 per cent, which is
the rate the Government pays on its bonds. Before unoccupied lands
are offered for sale the people of the towns in which they are located
must be notified of the proposed sale by public crier.
Another very important amendment extends the time for making
payments to within one year of the date of the maturity of the friar-land
bonds. The original act allowed ten years from the date of purchase,
payments to be made, if so desired, in equal annual installments. The
amendment extends the time from ten years to twenty-five years. This
amendment seemed absolutely necessary as few of the occupants of the
poorer class lands would have been able to meet their annual payments
under the former arrangement. This extension of time lies within the
discretion of the Director of Lands and it is not intended to apply it
to urban lots as there is no necessity therefor, the difficulty having arisen
in the case of agricultural lands, especially when at present nonproductive.
The law as amended authorizes payment in semiannual installments
when desired and this will be a convenience for some tenants.
FRIAR LANDS LOANS.
In the last annual report of the undersigned mention was made of
the fact that the Commission has set aside a fund of 1*100,000 for the
purpose of establishing a reimbursable fund to be known as the "Friar-
lands loan fund," which should be available for the making of mortgage
loans upon growing crops and salable commodities manufactured there-
from, work animals, warehouses, mill houses and machinery and other
property, both real and personal, belonging to the actual and bona fide
cultivators of the friar lands, and for extensions of the cultivated areas
on such estates. The Act further provides for the method of handling
these funds by regulations to be approved by the Secretary of the Interior.
The regulations made will be found set forth in the report of the Director
This legislation was enacted so late as to render it almost impossible
to make funds available for the planting of that year's sugar crop
which should have taken place in November, December and January.
As it had been determined that loans from this small fund should be
made only for the purpose of placing under cultivation sugar lands on
the Santa Eosa, Calamba, Binan, Imus, San Francisco de Malabon and
Santa Cruz de Malabon Estates the amount placed was necessarily
small. The total amount of loans made aggregates 1*1 1,690, of which
amount M 1,000 was used for the purchase of draft animals.
The disbursement of the money was on the order of the borrower
direct to the cattle dealer in payment for animals purchased and the
borrower was thus prevented from disposing of the funds in any other
manner than that agreed upon. At the present writing all of the
animals purchased are alive and well and the immediate result has been
a considerable increase in the area cultivated for sugar with very good
prospects for an excellent crop, so that there should be no difficulty
in repaying the loans.
Much difficulty has been experienced in getting the securities of
friar-lands loans into proper shape, for the Chattel Mortgage Law is
new and its terms are not yet generally or well understood.
SPECIAL INDUCEMENTS TO OCCUPATION AND CULTIVATION OF FRIAR ESTATES.
Both the Director of Lands and the undersigned are of the opinion
that upon the date of the cultivation of the friar lands depends the
date of their final disposal as the price necessarily asked is so high as
to make it improbable that sales can, in most cases, be made before a
steady income from crops is assured so that purchasers can be certain
of being able to pay on the installment plan.
At the request of the Director of Lands, the Bureau of Agriculture
has worked two steam plows on the Santa Eosa Estate during part of
the year with results which have been very satisfactory to the Director
and to the tenants and have materially increased the cultivated area.
The original contracts with tenants provided that they should furnish
fuel and water for the plowing engines and a part of the labor required.
In nearly every case, however, they failed to furnish fuel and water and
the labor furnished was often insufficient in quantity and unsatisfactory
in quality. Contracts hereafter entered into should provide for the
furnishing of fuel and water, and probably of all labor as well, by the
Bureau of Agriculture. The amount of plowing performed will be
increased during the present year and further inducements such as
improvements to roads, and repairs and reconstructions to irrigation
systems, will continue to be made.
RESERVATIONS REQUESTED ON FRIAR LANDS FOR INSULAR, MUNICIPAL AND
There have been a number of requests from Insular, municipal and
provincial authorities that friar lands be reserved, without compen-
sation, for various public purposes. The Director of Lands has con-
tended that if portions of friar lands were needed by any department
of the Government they must be rented, or purchased and paid for, and
that in no instance should portions of the friar estates be finally disposed
of without reimbursing the friar-lands fund for their full value as
determined by the usual method. In this contention he has had the
full support of the • undersigned.
FALSE RUMORS RELATIVE TO THE REPURCHASE OF PORTIONS OF FRIAR
ESTATES BY FRIARS.
The rumors which have been current to the effect that the friars were
repurchasing portions of the friar estates at a much less price than the
Government had paid for them are absolutely without foundation. Not
1 meter of land has been resold to the friars nor will any land be sold
at less than its cost price to the Government, plus the cost of administra-
tion to date of sale and with interest at the rate of 4 per cent, per annum
to the date of sale.
POLITICAL AND OTHER DIFFICULTIES.
It is gratifying to be able to report that political agitation has inter-
fered less with the administration of the friar estates than during any
Many difficulties have, however, been encountered by friar-lands
agents as, for instance, in the case of the agent of the Naic Estate on
whose recommendation an application to lease a large tract of land,
really for the purpose of cutting the wood on it, was denied. The
applicant then employed agents to steal the wood. They were detected
and the agent filed criminal charges against those responsible. They
reciprocated by filing charges against the agent in a justice of the
peace court for defrauding the Government. Bail was fixed at 5*3,000
and was furnished. Immediately thereafter the agent was charged with
estafa and 1*300 bail was required and the agent was informed that
other charges would be filed against him until he could no longer
furnish bail, the evident purpose being to jail him and get him out of
the way. The person primarily responsible for the taking of the wood
also filed a civil suit claiming damage to his character and for stopping
him from selling wood of the Government. Careful examination has
failed to show foundation for any of these charges which seem to have
been filed as a result of the agent's endeavoring to carry out specific in-
structions from the Director of Lands to stop the theft of firewood from
REPAIRS TO IRRIGATION WORKS.
Apart from ordinary repairs 20,400 meters of irrigation ditches have
been cleaned and reexcavated on the Lolomboy Estate, and on the Santa
Maria de Pandi Estate repairs have been made to nine dams and more
than 13,000 meters of irrigation ditches have been cleaned or reexcavated.
In addition to the maintenance and repair work performed by this
Bureau the Bureau of Public Works has direct supervision of the more
extensive repairs to dams, ditches, tunnels and canals. A large amount
of work has been performed by the latter Bureau during the year on the
estates in Cavite Province and surveys and estimates for two new projects
on the Imus and Naic Estates, respectively, have been prepared.
A detailed statement of the conditions which have prevailed on each
of the estates, including the work performed, will be found in the report
of the Director of Lands.
Twenty-one hundred and sixty-six homestead applications were re-
ceived, or 503 less than during the previous fiscal year. There is much
indifference among the Filipinos toward acquiring title to land and so
long as they are allowed to occupy public land they seem to care little
whether or not they have title.
Experience has shown that the presence of a land inspector, to inform
them of the necessity and benefit of acquiring legal titles, results in the
filing of many applications which otherwise would not be made. An
additional cause for the falling off in homestead applications is found
in the marked tendency among owners of large estates to discourage the
more ignorant when they seek to take up land on their own account.
One of the common procedures employed to this end is to exhibit written
documents and plans seeming to indicate that the person who exhibits
them is the owner of a vast territory in the region where the homesteader
desires to secure a homestead. The plans and documents may be grossly
fraudulent but the ignorant native has no means of knowing this and
becomes discouraged, believing that there is no public land remaining.
The Director of Lands has discovered that homestead applications are
not infrequently made in the names of persons who have no knowledge
that such applications have been filed. Applicants who have been re-
quested to point out the land applied for in order that an inspector may
determine whether it is more valuable for agricultural purposes than
for forestry purposes have stated that they had never signed any ap-
plications. These cases seem to indicate attempts fraudulently to obtain
land through bogus homestead applications, and if sufficient evidence
can be obtained prosecutions will be inaugurated.
There has been a material increase in the number of homestead ap-
plications approved, the number for the year being 1,459 or nearly double
the total allowed for the three previous years.
SALES OF PUBLIC LANDS.
Only fifty-one additional sales applications have been received. They
cover an area of but 583 hectares. The total sales applications received
up to June 30th, 1908, are 219 covering an area of 5,564 hectares. In
view of these facts could anything have been- more groundless than the
fear that Philippine agricultural lands would be bought up in large
quantities under a liberal land law ?
Of the total number of applications to purchase received since the
promulgation of the Public Land Act, 105, covering 1,599 hectares, have
been rejected, canceled or withdrawn.
The Director of Lands renews his recommendation that individuals
or corporations be permitted to purchase as many contiguous tracts of
land as they may desire at different times, provided the total area does
not exceed the legal allowance. In this way persons or corporations with
small resources can purchase land and add to it, as circumstances permit,
without the necessity of encumbering themselves at the outset with the
price of the maximum allowance which they might not be able to cul-
tivate for a number of years. It is undeniably true that up to the
present time the greatest improvements made on land purchased or
leased from the Government have been made by such persons or corpora-
tions of limited means, and in view of these facts the undersigned heartily
concurs in the recommendation of the Director of Lands.
LEASES OF PUBLIC LANDS.
There has been some increase in applications to lease public lands,
the number being 56 as against a total of 22 for the previous three
years. Of the 56 applications received 46 are from the Island of Min-
FREE PATENTS TO NATIVE SETTLERS.
There have been 2,045 free patent applications covering 9,836 hectares,
as against 8,607 applications received during the previous fiscal year.
This decrease is believed to be due in part to the fact that there has been
but one public land inspector employed and that he has been in the field
but a small portion of the time. The single inspector who was in the field
the previous year secured some 3,000 applications ! Further reasons for
the decrease are that a majority of those entitled to the benefits of
chapter four of the Public Land Act have probably filed their applica-
tions, while others have failed to learn that the time within which they
may make applications has been extended until January 1, 1909, although
every effort has been made to spread this information.
Nearly one-tenth of the applications received have been rejected — in
nearly every case because of noncompliance with the law relative to occu-
pation and cultivation. Numerous applications, have been received which,
if their statements are to be credited, show that the applicant began the
cultivation of the land desired some years before he was born! Such
obviously false statements are probably more the fault of the persons
making out the applications than of the applicants, many of whom are
very ignorant, and applicants are always given an opportunity to set
themselves right by making affidavits correcting obvious errors.
Town-site surveys have been completed at Sibul Springs in Bulacan,
Dansalan, Parang and Cotabato in the Moro Province.
The survey of the proposed town site of Davao in the same province is
now in progress.
Forty-four additional lots have been sold in the Baguio town site at
prices ranging from 4 centavos to 15£ centavos per square meter, the
minimum sale price being 2 centavos above the minimum at any previous
sale and the maximum being 2| centavos above the maximum at any
During the year the Director of Lands has received 384 notices from
the Court of Land Eegistration of cases in which applicants have claimed
patents under chapter six of the Public Land Act. After investigation
he has requested the Attorney-General to enter opposition in 70 and
appearance in 36. Twelve are still pending examination. On 260 it
was not deemed necessary that any special action be taken to protect the
rights of the Government the claims being apparently just.
The termination of the surveys on the friar estates has made possible
an increased number of surveys under sections 58 and 66 of the Public
Land Act. There have been executed 172 surveys covering 234 parcels
of land under the provisions of the former section at an average cost of
1*4.27 per hectare, and 145 surveys covering 227 parcels with a total
area of 9,330 hectares have been executed under the provisions of the
latter section at a cost of f*21,212.99.
MINERAL AND MINING CLAIMS.
During the year five patents for lode gold claims have been issued and
one patent for a placer copper claim.
There have been advertised and are now ready for patent twenty-eight
other lode claims containing gold and five placer claims. Fourteen addi-
tional claims are now ready to be advertised. Three additional claims
have been surveyed and applications for patent will probably soon be made
The following table shows the claims filed during the year so far as
information has been received. However, owing to the extremely lax
manner in which the officials at present performing the duty of mining
recorders render their reports this information is not complete.
Coal claims 90
Lode claims for gold 508
Lode claims for silver and lead 11
Lode claims, character not stated : 25
Lode claims, copper, rubies, silver _ 1*
Placer claims for gold 83
Placer claims for guano 8
Placer claims for limestone 1
Placer claims for manganese 6
Placer claims for ocher 1
Placer claims for sulphur water 2
Placer claims, character not stated 5
Full details as to these claims and the regions where they are located
will be found in the report of the Director of Lands.
There has been a good deal of activity in mining during the past year.
The number of claims which have been patented and those pending patent,
the formation of new mining corporations, the importation of a few
modern stamp mills and dredgers and the undertaking of investigations
by several well-known mining experts are all encouraging signs, but so
long as the Philippine mining industry must struggle along under the
incubus of Sections 33 and 75 of the Act of Congress of July 1, 1902,
active and healthful development can hardly be anticipated. The recom-
mendations relative to these sections which have hitherto so often been
made are therefore repeated and emphasized.
A survey of the area reclaimed from Manila Bay by filling is in
progress and the land should be offered for lease during the coming year.
A survey has also been ordered for the reclaimed land at Cebu but has
been stopped pending the final location of the custom-house and the
railroad right-of-way. When these points have been determined it will
be completed as soon as possible.
INSULAR GOVERNMENT PROPERTY.
The Director of Lands, who is the custodian of lands and property
belonging to the Insular Government, is collecting rents on the land*
occupied by the building owned by the Telephone and Telegraph Com-
pany and by the building formerly occupied by the Assistant Director
of Navigation. He is arranging as rapidly as possible for registering
title to all of such property and at an early date will request the Attorney-
General to file petitions in the Court of Land Eegistration on behalf of
the Insular Government for titles to land in Eizal Province, an experi-
mental farm at Iloilo, a coal yard in Manila, a small lot in Paco, Manila,
and a large tract of land situated in Bontoc, Province of Lepanto-Bontoc.
ROAD SURVEYS AND MONUMENT LOCATIONS.
The work of carrying out surveys of provincial roads, locating provin-
cial and municipal boundaries and establishing permanent monuments
so that known fixed points may be obtained to which all future surveys
made may be referred, is progressing steadily.
Surveys of nine municipalities located in the Provinces of Bulaean,
Palawan and Moro have been completed. Trail .and fiver reconnois-
sance and topographic sketching of 557 kilometers in the Province of
Benguet have been completed during the year, and 376 kilometers have
been executed in the Province of Lepanto-Bontoc.
Eighty-two kilometers of accurate provincial road surveys have been
completed in Bulaean, and 51 kilometers of road surveys have been
made on the Islands of Cuyo and Busuanga.
These surveys will be platted upon poly conic projection sheets, on
a scale of 1 in 50,000, and as fast as surveys of private property are
executed in the provinces they will be transferred to the polyconic sheets.
This will ultimately result, by a process of elimination, in a map showing
definitely the boundaries and area of the public lands, but the completion
of such a map will be the work of many years.
SAN LAZARO ESTATE.
In the settlement of questions relative to the administration of,
and title to, various properties heretofore in dispute between the Roman
Catholic Church and the Government of the Philippine Islands a
portion of the San Lazaro Estate was ceded to the Archbishop of
Manila and the value of the estate remaining in the hands of the
Government for administration was reduced from 1*2,327,740.95 to
^2,177,428.95, while the contracted rentals were reduced from 1*57,217.90
The income from this estate should be much larger than at present
but until many of the lots are filled and the city of Manila puts the
the street system into a passably decent condition and extends the
electric light and water systems to the estate, comparatively little
further improvement can be anticipated. With a view to the registra-
tion of the estate a survey has been made which includes a block and
lot survey except for those lots which are too low for residence purposes.
The blocks which have been subdivided have been rearranged. Build-
ings have been moved to conform to the limits of the new lots and the
ground has been leased according to the new subdivisions, thus leaving
the streets free for public purposes. When the property is registered
it will be registered by blocks so as to insure the future keeping open of
necessary streets and alleys.
The completion of the subdivision survey will materially decrease the
cost of administering the estate which now includes 2,383 lots of which
1,824 are occupied and 559 vacant. The tenants number 1,199, 1,164
being tenants at will, 29 having leases of six years, and 6 having leases
of more than six years.
The decrease of 1£ per cent in the rentals collected from the estate is
entirely due to the transfer of a portion of the estate to the church.
This transfer was effected on November 8, 1907, but as a matter of
courtesy the Director of Lands continued to collect all rentals until
December 31, 1907.
Had this portion of the estate not been transferred there would have
been an increase in rentals over the previous year of approximately 10
per cent. Two hundred and seven suits in ejectment were brought
against tenants of which one hundred and eighty-one were compromised
on the payment of rent due and costs, and five are pending. In only
twenty-one cases have rentors been dispossessed.
Further, details as to the work of the Bureau of Lands will be found
in the report of the Director.
THE BUREAU OF AGRICULTURE.
CONTROL OF ANIMAL DISEASES.
The most important work of the Bureau of Agriculture during the
year has been that for the purpose of bringing under control dangerous
communicable diseases affecting domestic animals ; more especially rinder-
pest and foot and mouth disease.
The Director of Agriculture states in his annual report that conditions
as to the prevalence of such diseases have been distinctly worse during
the year just ended than during the previous fiscal year. The under-
signed is by no means satisfied that this statement is entirely correct.
The fact is that there has now come a great change in public sentiment
relative to the work of the Bureau of Agriculture for the control of these
diseases, and this change is not without its attendant embarrassments.
A large proportion of the more ignorant inhabitants have until very
recently regarded veterinarians and their work with dread, and when
their domestic animals began to sicken and die have often made strenuous
efforts to conceal the fact. Now a large proportion of the people have
come to appreciate the value of the work done and are quick to report the
presence of disease so that it may seem to be more prevalent even when
this is not the case. At all events demands for assistance have come
faster than they could be met.
The steady increase of dangerous communicable diseases among animals
imported from neighboring countries, and especially from Hongkong,
made necessary the passage of Act 1760, entitled "An Act to prevent the
introduction into the Philippine Islands of dangerous communicable
animal diseases, to prevent the spread of such diseases within the Islands,
and for other purposes." This Act prohibits the admission into the
Philippines of shipments of diseased animals without the direct authority
of the Director of Agriculture and confers upon that official ample powers
relative to the quarantining of imported animals as well as of those raised
in the country.
Under the rules now in force for the carrying out of this Act, when
three successive shipments of infected animals have been received from any
port the Director of Agriculture does not allow further infected shipments
from such port to enter. In actual practice this has resulted in the
temporary complete suspension of the cattle trade between Hongkong and
Manila, but during a period of many months previous to this suspension
practically every shipment of cattle received from Hongkong was infected
on arrival, and it was obviously worse than useless to hope for success
in eradicating animal diseases while this state of affairs continued, for if
these infected shipments were to continue to enter and if the animals
composing them were to be scattered throughout the provinces the result
would be the constant appearance of new foci of disease.
In reality this Act ought to have been passed much sooner. As it was,
foot-and-mouth disease, introduced from Hongkong, infected twenty- five
Since it took effect conditions have improved quite steadily, and the
chief embarrassment which confronts us at present is that due to insuf-
ficient personnel and serum to meet the demands of the public. The
employment of additional veterinarians has been authorized. The facili-
ties for the production of serum will soon be greatly increased by the
completion of stables for 284 bullocks at Alabang, while the cost of its
production has been considerably reduced by the installation at the Bu-
reau of Science of a new, large and very powerful centrifuge for separating
serum from blood and by the discovery of Dr. Ruediger, of the same
Bureau, that physiological salt solution injected into the peritoneal cavities
of virulent blood animals may be drawn off when the animals are bled
and is then more effective than is the blood itself in producing the neces-
sary reaction in serum animals prior to obtaining from the latter the
blood from which rinderpest serum is derived. The" value of each viru-
lent blood animal is thus more than doubled.
As appropriations have now been made for the establishment of quaran-
tine stations at Manila, Cebu and Iloilo, the three principal ports of
entry for cattle, it is believed that within the next year much greater
progress will be possible than has heretofore been made in ridding the
Islands of dangerous, communicable animal diseases. In fact the situa-
tion has already very greatly improved, and on September 15 there was
not a single important -outbreak of rinderpest in the Islands.
SALE OF SERUM ANIMALS.
The serum animals eventually attain such a high degree of immunity
that it becomes necessary to inject a very large amount of virulent blood
in order to produce any reaction whatever. It eventually ceases to
be profitable to obtain serum from them and they are sold at auction.
The faith of the public in their immunity is demonstrated by the keen-
ness of the competition for them. Animals which would be worth from
f*60 to 1*80 if not immunized readily bring 1*100 to 1*130 pesos.
Upon the completion of the new serum stables at Alabang and the
transfer of the herd to that place, it is proposed to continue the present
stables on the San Lazaro Estate and to use them for immunizing ani-
mals belonging to private individuals, making a reasonable charge to
PROPOSED SALE OF SERUM.
There have been very numerous demands for serum from persons who
desired to have it on hand as a precautionary measure or who wished
temporarily to immunize their herds. Heretofore it has seldom been
possible to sell serum to such persons, as all that could be manufactured
was imperatively needed by the Bureau of Agriculture.
With the completion of the new stables which makes .possible a
material increase in the size of the serum herd, and with the more rapid
and complete extraction of serum which will be obtained by the large
new centrifuge just installed, it should be possible to produce a good
deal more than is required for the ordinary uses of the Government and
the surplus will be sold at reasonable prices to any one who may desire to
ESTABLISHMENT OF A VETERINARY COLLEGE RECOMMENDED.
The undersigned is fully convinced that the first college of the
proposed new university to be established should be a college of veterinary
medicine and surgery. In the past it has always been difficult to obtain
a sufficient number of properly qualified veterinarians from the United
States. New men upon arrival are necessarily compelled to spend a
considerable amount of time familiarizing themselves with tropical ani-
mal diseases and with the methods which have proved most successful in
combating them. They must also learn a good deal of Spanish and
in fact it is not until they have acquired a considerable knowledge of the
local native dialects and have had a large amount of experience in deal-
ing with the people in the provinces that they reach their maximum use-
Men born and reared in the Islands must always have a great advan-
tage over those brought in from the outside, if equally well trained, and
the facilities for giving the best of training can be provided at a relatively
The course of study should be of four years duration. The first two
years can be given in the Philippine Medical School as at present or-
ganized with little or no additional expense. The last two years can be
provided for in connection with the Manila Quarantine Station, where
a veterinary hospital should in any event be established and where tech-
nical instruction can be given by the veterinarians in charge. Until
such time as conditions greatly improve there should be a competent
veterinarian in every province in the Philippine Islands, and to this end
the government should provide one or more free scholarships for each
province, with the proviso that the beneficiary in each case shall serve
the government, at a moderate salary, for at least four years after gradua-
tion. The present arrangement which allows but one veterinarian to
each four or five provinces or islands of considerable importance is highly
Heretofore the most serious difficulty in the way of combating dan-
gerous communicable animal diseases has been the hostile attitude of the
more ignorant people of the Islands. The great change which has now
arisen is both gratifying and encouraging. The undersigned felt that
it was certain to come in the end but did not expect it so soon or he
would have tried to have the Bureau of Agriculture better prepared to
meet the largely increased volume of work resulting from it.
With some hesitation the issuing of a monthly publication known as
the "Philippine Agricultural Eeview" has been entered upon and five
numbers have appeared. They have been extremely well received, the
demand for them being so great that the Spanish edition of the first
three numbers is already entirely exhausted. The Eeview is proving of
the greatest value in bringing the Bureau of Agriculture more closely in
touch with the people.
Farmers' Bulletin No. 15 on "Tobacco Growing in the Philippines,"
Press Bulletin No. 11 on "Seed Distribution, Need of Diversified Farm-
ing," etc., and a circular on kapok have also been published. The first
of these was issued in English, Spanish, Ibanag and Ilocano, the second
in English and Spanish and the third in English, Spanish, Ilocano,
Tagalog and two dialects of Visayan.
Under the superintendency of Sr. Pablo Tecson, agricultural-extension
work has progressed satisfactorily. As in the case of the publication of
the Agricultural Eeview, the object of this work is to bring the Bureau
of Agriculture more closely in contact with the people of the Islands
and with the practical problems confronting agriculturists here. Sr.
Tecson travels quite steadily in the provinces and has brought widely to
the attention of the people the results of the work of the Bureau in
treating and checking the spread of dangerous, communicable animal
disease, the advantage of improved methods of cultivation and of the
planting of certain special crops, and the methods by which seeds or
plants of improved varieties of fruits, vegetables, cereals, fiber plants,
etc., may be obtained from the Bureau of Agriculture, and in various
other ways has rendered valuable services.
He has carried on investigations in the Provinces of Batangas, Nueva
Ecija, Bulacan, Occidental Negros, and Tarlac, reporting the results of
his work to the Bureau. These investigations have in each locality
covered such subjects as soil conditions, possible irrigation facilities,
existing agricultural products, products which might profitably be in-
troduced and the condition of live stock and poultry.
CROP REPORTING AND STATISTICS.
The Bureau of Agriculture has gradually organized quite an effective
force for crop reporting and the gathering of agricultural statistics, and
at the request of its Director the Weather Bureau, which was by law
required to make crop reports and which had rendered valuable services
considering its limited facilities, has been relieved from the necessity of
continuing to make these reports.
While many obstacles have been encountered, both by the Weather
Bureau and by the Bureau of Agriculture, it can be said that the
number of crop reporters is steadily increasing, that the character of the
reports rendered is steadily improving and that the Philippine Agricul-
tural Review affords a quite satisfactory medium for the dissemination
of the information thus obtained.
Experiments in the use of mechanically propelled plows have steadily
continued and have served only to confirm the conclusion hitherto
reached, namely that wherever there exists a considerably tract of reason-
ably level land which has been freed from stumps and large stones and
which is on or near a suitable water supply, steam plowing can be
carried on to good advantage and at moderate cost.
The Bureau of Agriculture has had two steam plowing outfits at
work for private individuals on the Santa Rosa friar estate where much
of the arable land is rolling or hilly and is divided into comparatively
small plats by streams, ditches, hedges and wooded areas. Although
these persons were under contract to provide dry fuel, water and a
certain amount of labor, in nearly every instance they failed to furnish
the fuel and water promised and in not a few cases were very dilatory
about providing labor. In some places water was difficult to obtain.
Nevertheless large areas hitherto overgrown with cogon or runo grass
were brought under cultivation and the owners of the land seem well
satisfied with the results. However, the necessity of bringing in coal
for fuel and of using the plowing engines as stump pullers materially
increased the cost of plowing over what it would have been had the
owners provided dry wood and properly cleared their land.
Just at the beginning of the rainy season the Bureau of Agriculture
secured a Hart-Parr petroleum plowing engine. This engine has several
pronounced advantages over steam plowing engines. Its relatively light
weight (19,000 pounds) facilitates its passage over bad ground and
weak bridges and as it consumes comparatively little power in propel-
ling itself a large part of the energy generated is available for traction
purposes. It can be started and stopped almost instantly and the loss
of time involved in getting up steam in the morning and drawing
fires at night is avoided. No large transportation problem is involved
in keeping it supplied with fuel. It uses very little water and, in fact,
when it starts in the morning carries kerosene and water enough for
an entire day's run so that it can work uninterruptedly.
The engine has proved to be readily manageable and the traction
results obtained are most satisfactory. ' It only remains to demonstrate
whether or not it will endure continuous service under the severe con-
ditions which prevail in these Islands. The early advent of the rainy
season has prevented any conclusive answer to this question. As soon
as the land dries off sufficiently to make plowing possible this engine
will be put at hard and continuous work and the results noted. So far
as our experiments have gone it has proved most satisfactory.
Interest in maguey planting continues unabated and the Bureau of
Agriculture has furnished both Hawaiian and Philippine plants for
distribution in large numbers, having sent out 42,475 of the former
and 1,422,640 of the latter.
Guinea grass is by far the most important plant which has recently
been introduced here. It produces an extraordinary amount of highly
nutritive fodder which is greedily eaten by horses, cattle and pigs. At
the beginning of the calendar year 3,026 square meters of land at the
Singalong station were planted with this grass. During the following
six months four cuttings of fodder aggregating 21,543 kilos, which is
equivalent to 78 tons per hectare or 31-J tons per acre, were made.
When it is remembered that the soil at Singalong is poor and sandy,
and that the vitality of the plants was apparently unimpaired after four
cuttings, the extraordinary nature of this result will be appreciated.
Another plat of land at this station containing 2,533 square meters
was planted during the first week in April. This crop followed corn.
It was given one light irrigation but no fertilizer. The first cutting was
useful in sending typhoon warnings to vessels on the China sea and
possibly to points on the neighboring Asiatic coast.
The results of the work of the Weather Bureau during the year have
been so concisely stated in the report of the Director that it would be
useless for the undersigned to endeavor further to condense them for
the purpose of this report.
RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS OF BUREAUS.
A statement of the receipts and disbursements of each Bureau of this
Department will be found in the annual report of its Director.
Dean C. Worcester,
Secretary of the Interior.
To the Philippine Commission,
Manila, P. I.